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Courses in LSA Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

The Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology embraces education and research on virtually all aspects of biodiversity, including the origins and history of species ranging from bacteria to humans, the processes by which this diversity has evolved, and the ecological context in which this evolution takes place. These basic sciences underlie some of the most important applied sciences in the world today, such as global climate change, sustainable agriculture, the emergence and spread of infectious diseases, invasive and exotic species, conservation biology, natural resource management, and evolution of pesticide and antibiotic resistance.

Ecologists and evolutionary biologists seek to understand the origin and complex interactions of the earth's biodiversity and ecosystems. Our collective focus spans numerous levels of biological organization over multiple timescales; including genes, individuals, kin groups, populations, species, communities, and ecosystems. Studies in ecology and evolution strive to synthesize how these levels of organization are related to one another and what processes govern their interactions. Although the methods, background knowledge, and social context for such investigations have changed radically in recent decades, the fundamental questions about life remain, and their relevance to humans has increased. How did we get here? How does nature work? How will our role in nature change in the future?

Introductory Biology Credit Limitation

The maximum amount of credit that can be earned in introductory biology courses is 17 credits. Students interested in concentrating in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology or Plant Biology must complete BIOLOGY 171, 172/174 and 173, or BIOLOGY 195 and 173, or equivalent.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (EEB)
EEB 300. Undergraduate Research
Consent of instructor required. Eight credits of biology and 3.0 grade point average in science; permission of faculty member in EEB. (1 - 3). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. Continuing Course. Y grade can be reported at end of the first-term to indicate work in progress. At the end of the second term (EEB 300 or 400), the final grade is posted for both term's elections. Three credits of independent research must be completed in one term to satisfy a Biology laboratory requirement. A maximum of three credits of any independent study course may count toward the Biology concentration programs.

EEB 302. Teaching Experience for Undergraduates
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be repeated for credit.

EEB 313 / EARTH 313. Geobiology
EARTH (GEOSCI) 119 or BIOLOGY 171 or CHEM 130 or permission of instructor. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course addresses several core geobiological themes in two very different worlds, the microbial world and the vertebrate world. Themes include the coevolution of the biosphere and geosphere, major evolutionary innovations and events, diversity of life and metabolism, biomechanics, and biogeography.

EEB 315 / ENVIRON 315. The Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
BIOLOGY 100; or BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces the population ecology and evolution of parasites and disease-causing agents impacting human, animal, and plant health. The emphasis will be on patterns of temporal change and spatial spread at the population level. Main themes include the impact of environmental change, particularly in climate, on infectious diseases, the connection between biodiversity and health, the role of disease in conservation, and the co-evolution of hosts and parasites.

EEB 316 / ENVIRON 316 / RCIDIV 316. Introduction to Food Systems
Consent of instructor required. (3). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

The course introduces the ecology of agricultural ecosystems; the cultural and environmental history of food production, and the current ecological and socio-economic crises in food and agriculture, especially as they affect biodiversity and the sustainability of rural and urban communities.

EEB 318 / ENVIRON 318 / RCIDIV 318. Food, Land, and Society
One year of college-level Biology, Environmental Science or Environmental Studies; General Ecology recommended. (4). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

The course introduces the ecology of agricultural ecosystems; thee cultural and environmental history of food production, especially in Michigan; and the current ecological and socio-economic crises in agriculture, especially as they affect biodiversity and the sustainability of rural communities.

EEB 320 / ENVIRON 311. Rivers, Lakes, and Wetlands: Introduction to Aquatic Ecosystems
One course in BIOLOGY or permission of instructor. (4; 5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Field and lecture based introduction to the scientific study of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Introduces basic physical/chemical/biological concepts and techniques; emphasized ecological literacy and seeks to develop interpretive skills and reasoning. Includes overview of aquatic fauna and flora, and a survey of the ecology of major types of rivers and streams, lakes, wetlands, and ocean estuaries. Interactions between the hydrological cycle, the landscape, and human activities provide the basic theme around which ecosystem presentations are organized. Lab sections develop basic chemical and biological identification skills during the first half of the course; the second half focuses on weekly field trips to representative ecosystems and their ecological evaluation.

EEB 330. Biology of Birds
Two college-level courses in biology. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

EEB 335. Biodiversity Research Seminar
BIOLOGY 171 and 172 (or 174); or BIOLOGY 195 and 173. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Recommended grade of at least B in BIOLOGY introductory courses. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F and W.

This course aims to introduce undergraduates to current research topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Students attend weekly EEB seminars presented by either outside invited scientists or by in-house faculty and graduate students. This is followed by a written critical synopsis, and instructor-led discussion, of the research presented.

EEB 341. Parasitology
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

An introduction to the study of parasitism, with special reference to the evolution of the parasitic habit.

EEB 348 / ENVIRON 348. Forest Ecosystems
Consent of department required. BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Biological Station.

Focused on ecology in forest species and components of ecological systems, this course emphasizes hands-on field study in diverse upland and wetland forests. It stresses integrating topography, soil, climate, and vegetation, plus the dynamics of fire and regeneration ecology. This ecocentric approach is applicable in temperate forest ecosystems throughout the world.

EEB 372 / ENVIRON 372. General Ecology Laboratory
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; AND concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOLOGY 281/ENVIRON 281. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course combines a mixture of tools needed to become ecologically proficient. This includes applying the fundamental concepts from ecology, the protocol for conceptualizing and conducting experiments, the statistical tests used to test hypotheses, and the tools needed to present work through communication. The lab exercises have a mixture of ecological practices, field experiments, hypothesis testing, statistical analyses, and written/oral communication.

EEB 380. Oceanography: Marine Ecology
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; and one term of college CHEM or PHYSICS. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Marine ecology is the branch of biological oceanography that applies ecological principles to the study of marine life. Lectures cover the interrelationships of marine organisms and their environment. Organisms and communities from the following habitats are discussed: estuaries, the rocky intertidal zone, coral reefs, the coastal zone, the deep-sea and the open ocean. The course treats the ecology of diverse marine organisms ranging from bacteria to whales.

EEB 381 / ENVIRON 381. General Ecology
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; AND a laboratory course in CHEM. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Fundamental concepts and principles of ecology of both plants and animals applied to the study of individual organisms, populations, and communities. Field and laboratory work emphasized the collection and analysis of basic data. A formal introduction to the discipline of ecology and suitable as a prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in the subject.

EEB 390. Evolution
BIOLOGY 162 or 163 or 171 or (195 & 173); prior or concurrent enrollment in BIOLOGY 305. (3; 5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course covers the fundamentals of evolutionary biology with a focus on living organisms. It includes a historical survey of the development of evolutionary theory from ancient philosophers to the present, and critical examination of phylogenetic systematics, natural selection, population genetics, molecular evolution, micro-evolution, and macro-evolution.

EEB 391. Introduction to Evolution: Quantitative Approach
MATH 115, 120, 185, or equivalent. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Any introductory course in probability and statistics. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. EEB 390.

This course examines evolutionary biology based on a number of key concepts and partial formal theories. It includes the history of life, microevolution, and macroevolution along with the data and methods for obtaining it. The course extensively uses simple concepts of calculus, probability theory, and computer science.

EEB 397 / MCDB 397. Writing in Biology
MCDB 300 or 400, or EEB 300 or 400, or permission of instructor. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 301 or MCDB 301.

This course is designed to be an introduction to the types of writing engaged in by biologists. We will consider a variety of types of texts, with the goals of understanding how these texts are written and what their roles are in the broader scientific community. The two overarching goals of this course are 1) to help students learn how to read, write, and present science research, and 2) to consider various purposes and processes required for communication in science.

EEB 400. Advanced Research
Consent of instructor required. 12 credits of BIOLOGY, 3.0 average in science, and permission of instructor in EEB. (1 - 3). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. Continuing Course. Y grade can be reported at end of the first-term to indicate work in progress. At the end of the second term, the final grade is posted for both term's elections. Three credits of independent research must be completed in one term to satisfy a Biology laboratory requirement. A maximum of three credits of any independent study course may count toward the Biology concentration programs.

EEB 401. Advanced Topics in Biology
Intended for senior concentrators. The prerequisites will be set by the instructor as appropriate for each section. (2 - 3). (BS). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This course is designed to acquaint students with a specialized area of Biology that is not a usual part of the Biology Department curriculum. Topics vary from term to term and are listed in the Schedule of Classes.

EEB 404 / MCDB 404. Genetics, Development, and Evolution
BIOLOGY 305. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to the field of evolution and development, with an emphasis on genetics as a unifying force. After reviewing fundamental principles in development and evolutionary biology, papers from the primary literature investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for evolutionary change will be discussed.

EEB 405. Biological Station Special Topics
College course in biology, chemistry, and ecology. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course will provide advanced undergraduate and graduate students with a comprehensive and integrated understanding of topics specific to a field station in northern Michigan.

EEB 408. Modeling for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
MATH 116 or equivalent; and BIOLOGY 171, 172 or 174, & 173 or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

An introductory course in the creation and analysis of mathematical models in ecology and evolutionary biology, teaching students the derivation and analysis of simple models formulated using ordinary differential or recursion equations, and demonstrating the application of those skills to example core models in ecology and evolutionary biology.

EEB 410. EEB Capstone Seminar
BIOLOGY 281 and 390. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is required of EEB concentrators and is intended to be taken late in the concentrators career after exposure to both basic ecological and evolutionary theory. The course provides the opportunity for in-depth discussion of the ecological and evolutionary principles underlying important issues in biology and human affairs.

EEB 412. Molecular Ecology
BIOLOGY 305 and 390, or equivalents. Population genetics and ecology desirable. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Molecular Ecology is an academic discipline that links research in ecology and evolution through the use of DNA markers. This class surveys the most important DNA markers and analytical methods currently used in Molecular Ecology. Topics include population structure, kinship, parentage, community phylogeny, phylogeography, microbial ecology and species discovery.

EEB 420. Plant Evolution
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; AND BIOLOGY 230 or equivalent. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course aims to give students an advanced and updated perspective of plant evolution on the following topics: phylogenetic concepts, a phylogeny of photosynthetic life, evolution of genomes in plants, evolution of development (molecular genetics, biochemistry, and physiology), and evolution of interaction of plants with their abiotic and biotic environment.

EEB 424 / ENVIRON 415 / NRE 415. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and completion or concurrent enrollment in either ENVIRON 415 or EEB 424 or NRE 415. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 492.

This course will focus on the ways environments shape the behavior and life histories of animals. Because environments pose constraints, behaviors have "better" and "worse" impacts on an organism's survival and reproduction. This course will consider hypothesis in five areas.

EEB 425 / ENVIRON 416 / NRE 416. Field Skills in Wildlife Behavior
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and completion or concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON 415. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 492.

Students gain field skills in testing behavioral ecological hypotheses. Field work stresses repeatable, quantitative observation, generation of testable hypotheses, graphical and statistical data analysis, and oral and written communication.

EEB 430 / CMPLXSYS 430. Modeling Infectious Diseases
Consent of instructor required. MATH 115 or 120. (3). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Understanding the spread, evolution and control of infectious diseases requires integrating processes that occur at many scales: infection and pathogenesis within a host, transmission among hosts and long-term evolutionary forces. Mathematical and computational models provide a unique perspective for understanding disease dynamics at these scales individually, but also within an integrated framework. By combining lectures and computer labs, we formulate and analyze various models relating to infectious disease biology, with particular attention to their management control.

EEB 431. Ecology of Animal Parasites
Two laboratory courses in BIOLOGY. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Meets June 26 - August 21, 2010.

EEB 433 / ENVIRON 433 / NRE 433. Ornithology
BIOLOGY 171 and (172 or 174) and 173, or BIOLOGY 195 and 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

During the lecture, students have the opportunity to learn about many unique features of birds. In the mandatory lab, students have the opportunity to learn about birds by using museum specimens, and by observing birds on field trips.

EEB 436 / ENVIRON 436 / NRE 436. Woody Plants: Biology and Identification
BIOLOGY 162 or 171. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Ecology, systematic and identification of trees, shrubs, and vines are studies in weekly field trips to diverse Michigan ecosystems--including upland, wetland, and floodplain forests. Lectures focus on glacial landscape history, biogeography, and ecology of Michigan forests.

EEB 440 / ENVIRON 422 / NRE 422. Biology of Fishes
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages exam.

EEB 441 / ENVIRON 423 / NRE 423. The Biology of Fishes Laboratory
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This lab provides an intro to field methods used in fish biology and fisheries, and examines the diversity of the Michigan ichthyofauna and major groups of would fishes.

EEB 442. Biology of Insects
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (4; 5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Emphasis on living animals and evolution. Embryology, development, and molting; elementary physiology, ecology, genetics and behavior, and functional external and internal morphology; and geological history. Classification of adults and immatures.

EEB 445 / EARTH 445. Biogeography
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. One course in historical geology is recommended. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The goal of this course is to provide students with an understanding of how evolution proceeds through time in relation to geography. The course explores the limitation of distributions of organisms by barriers, including climate, effects on species formation and extinction, species abundance and richness, dispersal, and vicariance.

EEB 446. Microbial Ecology
Introductory Microbiology (BIOLOGY 207 or the equivalent) and one 300-level or above biology course [Microbial diversity (EEB 470) and general ecology (EEB 281/381) are recommended.]. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

For the Microbiology concentration, this course counts as a Group 1 Specified Elective.

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This course covers the ecology of microbes by highlighting their interactions with each other and the environment. An emphasis is placed on Bacteria, Archaea, and their viruses. The course aims at uncovering how concepts developed in plant and animal ecology do and do not translate to the microbial world.

EEB 450. Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (5). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Lectures on the evolution, behavior, ecology, and life history of amphibians and reptiles. Laboratory exercises and field trips emphasize indentification, life history, adaptations, and field methods.

EEB 451 / ENVIRON 451 / NRE 451. Biology of Mammals
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F. (Offered in alternate years). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Evolution, distribution, ecology, behavior, anatomy, and classification of mammals, with emphasis on North American species.

EEB 453. Field Mammalogy
Two laboratory courses in BIOLOGY. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. (Offered in even years at the Biological Station). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

EEB 455. Ethnobotany
Two college-level courses in BIOLOGY. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

EEB 456 / ENVIRON 456. Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands
BIOLOGY 171 or one introductory biology course and another natural science course. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course aims for students to acquire an understanding of the basic concepts of ecosystem structure and function of the diverse herbaceous and forested wetlands along the Great Lakes coasts.

EEB 457. Algae in Freshwater Ecosystems
Two laboratory courses in Botany. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. (Offered in even years at the Biological Station). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

EEB 459. Systematic Botany
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; OR BIOLOGY 255. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Principles of systematic botany, including training in the major groups of vascular plants in terms of their morphology, anatomy, cytology, ecology, and reproductive biology, as well as problems win numerical taxonomy, biosystematics, and botanical nomenclature. Laboratory includes plant specimens and visual aids.

EEB 463. Neotropical Plant Families
BIOLOGY 215 or EEB 459. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

This course will introduce students to generic-level organization of 25 neo-tropical plant families. Families covered are 1) ecologically widespread and abundant in the neo-tropics or 2) of taxonomic or economic significance. Meetings include lectures on comparative morphology, anatomy, and ecological/economic significance of families and their included genera, and a laboratory during which students examine dried specimens.

EEB 466 / MATH 466. Mathematical Ecology
MATH 217, 417, or 419; MATH 256, 286, or 316; and MATH 450 or 451. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course gives an overview of mathematical approaches to questions in the science of ecology. Topics include: formulation of deterministic and stochastic population models; dynamics of single-species populations; and dynamics of interacting populations (perdition, competition, and mutualism), structured populations, and epidemiology. Emphasis is placed on model formulation and techniques of analysis.

EEB 468. Biology of Fungi
BIOLOGY 305, EEB 390, or BIOLOGY 281 strongly suggested. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an introduction to the fungi through lectures, laboratories, and field trips. We explore fungal biodiversity, ecology, genetics, and the importance of fungi in food and human health. Practical experience, such as isolation and identification of mushrooms, yeasts, and molds is included.

EEB 470. Microbial Diversity
Junior standing; BIOLOGY 207 and at least one 300 level course in the Biological Sciences. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The course describes the biological diversity of prokaryotic microorganisms, members of the Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea, examining the evolutionary origins of microbial life, the metabolic roles extant prokaryotes carry out in maintaining the biosphere, their physiological adaptations to the environment and to environmental extremes, and modern phylogenetic approaches for their identification and evolutionary analysis.

EEB 472. Plant-Animal Interactions
BIOLOGY 281. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

EEB 476 / ENVIRON 476 / NRE 476. Ecosystem Ecology
General Ecology and a 400-level course in Aquatic or Terrestrial Ecology. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

Current theories about the control and function of ecosystems, the approaches and techniques being used to test these theories, and the application of theory to the management and restoration of ecosystems.

EEB 477. Laboratory in Field Ecology
A course in Ecology. (5). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

EEB 483. Freshwater Ecosystems: Limnology
Sophomores and above. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) One course in each of the following: Ecology, Chemistry, and Physics. (4). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who are enrolled in or have completed EEB 484. W.

This is a lab field course that focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological controls of aquatic ecosystems. It addresses major topics such as nutrient enrichment, food/web interactions, and invasive species. The lab component provides instruction on modern field techniques and laboratory analyses used in aquatic research.

EEB 485. Population and Community Ecology
(4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Principles governing the phenomena of single and interacting populations are examined, from basic tenets to cutting-edge research questions. Population and community-level perspectives are integrated by drawing parallels between approaches and considering how to scale up from the phenomena of one or a few species to the structure and dynamics of whole communities.

EEB 486. Biology and Ecology of Fish
Two laboratory courses in BIOLOGY. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. (Offered in odd years at the Biological Station). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

EEB 487 / ENVIRON 409 / NRE 409. Ecology of Fishes
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (3 - 4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W. (Lectures: 3 credits; lectures and lab: 4 credits). Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement only if the student signs up for four credits.

Covers physiological, behavioral, and numerical responses of fishes to biotic and abiotic factors; the relationship between fish and the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of major habitat types; adaptations of fish for survival under different constraints.

EEB 489 / ENVIRON 430 / NRE 430. Soil Ecology
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and 172 and 173, and General Chemistry. Concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON 436/EEB 436 and ENVIRON 435/NRE 435 highly recommended. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

Soils as central components of terrestrial ecosystems. Major emphasis is placed on physical, chemical, and biological properties and their relationships to plant growth and ecosystem processes. Understanding is developed using a combination of lectures, field- and lab-based exercises, and individual research.

EEB 490. Evolution at the Population Level
BIOLOGY 305. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with evolution of life from the population-level perspective, which ignores internal structure of organisms and, instead, considers their external features, emphasizing gene transmission and natural selection.

EEB 491. Phylogenetic Methods and Theory
BIOLOGY 171, 172 or 174, & 173 or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course covers theory and methods used in phylogenetics. Topics will include sequence manipulation and alignment, dataset assembly, phylogenetic reconstruction, tree searching, character reconstruction, and dating analyses. Prior programming experience is helpful but not required; familiarity with computers is assumed.

EEB 492. Behavioral Ecology
BIOLOGY 162 or 163 or 172 or 174 or [195 & 173]. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) BIOLOGY 390 or EEB 390. (3; 5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. (Offered in odd years at the Biological Station).

This course explores the behavior of animals in their natural environment. Students develop their understanding of evolution and learn how to apply natural selection to understand why animals behave the way they do.

EEB 494 / MCDB 494. Teaching College Science
Consent of department required. Science concentrators having completed a range of courses, such as BIOLOGY 171,172 and 173; BIOLOGY 225, 281, 305 or EEB 390; CHEM 130, 210 or 211; PHYSICS 140 or 160; or EARTH 119. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course helps students build a foundation of knowledge about effective science teaching. It is both scholarly and practical in nature. Students construct an understanding of fundamental principles and sound pedagogy that they apply to their own teaching.

EEB 498. The Ecology of Agroecosystems
A course in Ecology. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

EEB 556. Field Botany of Northern Michigan
A course in Systematic Botany (EEB 459). (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Biology laboratory requirement.

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