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Courses in LSA Environment
Program in the Environment (ENVIRON)
ENVIRON 101 / BIOLOGY 101. Energy, Food, and the Environment
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Credit is granted for a combined total of 17 credits elected in introductory biology.

In recent years it has become apparent that current energy and food sourcing is damaging the environment from global warming to pesticide runoff. This course treats the issues of energy, food, and the environment from a biological and sociopolitical point of view. It emphasizes the historical trajectories that generated current conditions and the scientific options for revamping our energy and food systems to make them more consistent with environmental sustainability.

ENVIRON 102 / AOSS 102 / EARTH 122. Extreme Weather
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 202.

This course provides an introduction to the physics of extreme weather events. The course uses examples of the thunderstorms, jet stream, floods, lake-effect snowstorms, lightning, thunder, hail, hurricanes, and tornados to illustrate the physical laws governing the atmosphere. Participants apply these principles in hands-on storm forecasting and weather analysis assignments.

ENVIRON 105 / AOSS 105 / CHEM 105 / ENSCEN 105. Our Changing Atmosphere
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The science of the greenhouse effect, stratospheric ozone depletion, polar ozone holes, and urban smog. These phenomena and their possible consequences are discusses, along with the properties and behavior of the atmosphere and its components of the environment.

ENVIRON 110 / AOSS 171 / BIOLOGY 110 / EARTH 171 / ENSCEN 171. Introduction of Global Change: Physical Processes
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Credit is granted for a combined total of 17 credits elected in introductory biology. Satisfies the geography requirement for State of Michigan certification for social studies teachers. F.

Students learn about the evolution of the universe, Earth, our changing environment and our planets living organisms. Global Change I, which is part of the GC curriculum, assumes no prior science background. Homework and laboratories use computer-based systems modeling and analysis, and includes a group presentation.

ENVIRON 111 / AOSS 172 / EARTH 172 / ENSCEN 172 / GEOG 111. Global Change: The Sustainability Challenge
(4). (ID). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies the geography requirement for State of Michigan certification for social studies teachers. W.

This course explores scenarios for human sustainability and builds competencies in systems thinking and critical analysis, toward planning a sustainable future and to support responsible decision-making that minimizes impacts on the planet's ecosystem and resources.

ENVIRON 116 / EARTH 116. Introductory Geology in the Field
(5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Reduced credit: Students who have completed GEOSCI 117 or EARTH 117 or ENVIRON 117 receive 2 credits; GEOSCI 119 or 120 or EARTH 119 or 120 or ENVIRON 119 or 120, 3 credits; GEOSCI 205 AND 206 or EARTH 205 AND 206 or ENVIRON 206, 3 credits; one of GEOSCI 205 or 206 or EARTH 205 or 206 or ENVIRON 206, 4 credits. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming.

An introduction to geology in the field, this course is the equivalent of EARTH/ENVIRON 118/119 but is taught at Camp Davis, the University's Rocky Mountain Field Station near Jackson, Wyoming. It stresses principles and processes involved in the evolution of the earth. The course includes rigorous laboratory exercises in which students study minerals, rocks and fossils, and structures in their natural settings. Lectures are given both in camp and in the field, but much time is spent outdoors in the nearby Teton, Hoback, Gros Ventre, and Snake River Ranges. Other trips of special significance include the Wind River Range. Craters of the Moon, and Yellowstone Park.

ENVIRON 118 / EARTH 118. Introductory Geology Laboratory
Prior or concurrent enrollment in EARTH 119, or 205 and 206, or 284. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit if completed an introductory course in geology (EARTH/ENVIRON 116, 117, or 120). F, W.

This one-term laboratory course provides a practical study of minerals, rocks, and fossils and geologic maps.

ENVIRON 119 / EARTH 119. Introductory Geology Lectures
Concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON or EARTH (GEOSCI) 118 for the lab. (3 - 4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 116, 117, or 120, and no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 116, 117, or 120 or ENVIRON 116, 117, or 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both EARTH 205 (or GEOSCI 205) AND one of GEOSCI 206 or EARTH 206 or ENVIRON 206; Three credits granted to those who have completed one of GEOSCI 205 or 206, EARTH 205 or 206, or ENVIRON 206. F, W.

A basic single-term course in introductory geology concentrating on the evolution of the Earth in physical and chemical terms. Reference to the interaction of the external biosphere/atmosphere/hydrosphere with the earth's interior is an essential component of the course.

ENVIRON 120 / EARTH 120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit if completed EARTH (GEOSCI)/ENVIRON 116, 117, or 119, or both EARTH (GEOSCI) 205 AND EARTH (GEOSCI)/ENVIRON 206. Only 3 credits with EARTH (GEOSCI) 205 or EARTH (GEOSCI)/ENVIRON 206.

This is an introductory course that uses the National Parks to explore the geological history of the Earth, and specifically the tectonic evolution of the North American continent. Topics include plate tectonics, global volcanism, large explosive volcanic eruptions, the age of the Earth, the history of life (fossil record), meteorite impacts, earthquakes, mountain building, the origin of the Great Lakes, and climate change throughout Earth history.

ENVIRON 139. First-Year Seminar in the Environment
Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

Seminar on environmental topics for first-year students.

ENVIRON 175 / EARTH 175. The Microbial World: How Unseen Organisms Shape our Planet
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines how microorganisms shape the world around us, both throughout the Earth?s history and today. Major topics include the origin and evolution of life, the interplay between microbes and the environment, the roles microbes play in global warming, and applications of microbiology in biotechnology and energy.

ENVIRON 201. Ecological Issues
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Course involves lectures and discussions on ecological principles and concepts underlying the management and use of natural resources, with consideration of socio-economic factors and institutional roles. Emphasis on the importance of interdisciplinary approaches to matters concerning the allocation of natural resources and the quality of our environment. Topics include biodiversity, endangered species, exploitation practices, tropical deforestation, agriculture, air and water pollution, energy production and use, waste disposal, and the role of politics and economics in environmental issues.

ENVIRON 202 / EARTH 202. Introductory Environmental Science in the Rockies
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 201. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 201 or ENVIRON 209 or GEOG 201.

This course examines the principles of Environmental Sciences through field-based studies at the UM Camp Davis Rocky Mountain Field Station.

ENVIRON 203 / ORGSTUDY 203. Activism
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is about the practice of democracy. It examines the notion that when ordinary citizens work together for a common purpose, they have the potential to bring about intentional changes in their social, political, and environmental reality. The goal is to help empower students as citizens so that they might effect change in the world over the course of their lives.

ENVIRON 206 / EARTH 206. How the Earth Works: The Water Cycle and Environment
(2). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 116 or 117 or 119 or 120, and no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 116 or 117 or 119 or 120 or ENVIRON 116 or 117 or 119 or 120. Those with credit for GEOSCI 109 or EARTH 109 may only elect EARTH 206 or ENVIRON 206 for 1 credit.

Earth surface processes as they affect water and the global biogeochemical environment. Quantifies rates of water and elemental exchange between major Earth surface reservoirs. Surface rock weathering and geochemical exchange described.

ENVIRON 207. Sustainability and Society
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides students with a broad, interdisciplinary understanding of sustainability in society and establishing a platform from which to further research, study, and put it into practice. Students learn to connect sustainability to real-world challenges, evaluate its claims, develop knowledge to participate in sustainability debates, and identify novel pathways towards a more sustainable society.

ENVIRON 208 / ORGSTUDY 208. Business and the Natural Environment
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an introduction to business and the natural environment. We will start with an overview of the triple bottom line framework, in which corporations take into account social and environmental performance in addition to financial performance. Then we will focus on contemporary business activities that address the natural environment. We will discuss the role of the natural environment on business management and strategy, operations, supply chain, product innovation, and marketing.

ENVIRON 209 / EARTH 201 / GEOG 201. Introduction to Environmental Science and Geography
(4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 144 or 202 or EARTH 144 or 202 (or any combination thereof). Students who have completed EARTH 331 or GEOSCI 331 will receive only 3 credits. F.

This course emphasizes the scientific processes and principles behind global environmental problems. Topics include global biogeochemical cycles, human population, ecosystem management, biogeography, ecological restoration, soil-water-air pollution, environmental health, and energy resources.

ENVIRON 211. Social Sciences and Environmental Problems
(4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces a variety of social sciences and how they can contribute to understanding and addressing environmental problems. The first half of the course surveys the social sciences using environmental case studies. The second half applies concepts and tools from the social sciences to address a specific environmental problem.

ENVIRON 222. Introduction to Environmental Justice
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores people of color environmental concerns and specifically focuses on the connection between communities of color and low-income groups and the location of hazardous waste sites. This course also explores Native American environmental issues and the connection between the transboundary shipping of hazardous waste from developed countries to developing ones.

ENVIRON 232 / EARTH 222. Introductory Oceanography
(3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203.

The oceans of earth, their circulation, biology, chemistry, geology of the sea floor, and marine resources. Emphasis is on understanding the oceans as a single ecosystem.

ENVIRON 233 / EARTH 223. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory
(1). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

One three-hour lab each week.

ENVIRON 240 / PHIL 240. Environmental Ethics: Philosophical Underpinnings
(3; 2 in the half-term). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to environmental ethics, which concerns the value and moral status of the environment and its nonhuman elements. Topics may include theories about which parts of nature have intrinsic value, duties to future generations, the significance of wilderness, sustainability, and environmental policy and economics.

ENVIRON 250 / CMPLXSYS 250 / PUBPOL 250. Social Systems, Energy, and Public Policy
(3). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces global energy problems from the perspectives of how energytechnologies shape and are shaped by choices people make as individuals, as members of groups, and as members of society at large. We will examine the present and historical cultural, economic, and political contexts out of which today's energy choices and public policies emerged and how these choices and policies are constrained by fundamental scientific principles.

ENVIRON 255 / BIOLOGY 255. Plant Diversity
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines plant diversity by groups, ranging from algae and nonvascular plants through primitive vascular plants and culminating in flowering plants. Using an evolutionary perspective, it treats plants as organisms and emphasizes the innovations and structural adaptations of the various plant groups as well as life history strategies. Weekly field trips allow exploration of local natural areas.

ENVIRON 256 / ANTHRCUL 256. Culture, Adaptation, and Environment
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores anthropological approaches to human relationships with their environments and resources. Examines diverse conceptions of culture and nature, and time and space, and the impacts that contemporary global forces are having on indigenous societies and their ecosystems. Particular interest to relative strengths and weaknesses of materialistic and cultural analyses of human-environment relationship, and models that attempt to combine them.

ENVIRON 270. Our Common Future: Ecology, Economics and Ethics of Sustainable Development
(4). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an interdisciplinary foundation of the concepts and strategies of sustainability from an ecological, economic and socio-political perspective. The disciplines of ecology, economics, sociology and politics are experiencing major paradigm shifts that seek to readdress our proper role and influence on the planet and its resources. This course examines development within the context of globalization and how it affects people and the environment, especially in the Third World.

ENVIRON 281 / BIOLOGY 281. General Ecology
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; AND a laboratory course in CHEM (BIOLOGY 172 and 173 are strongly recommended). (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 381 or ENVIRON 381.

The course introduces the basic concepts and principles of ecology as applied to the study of individuals, populations, and communities of both plants and animals.

ENVIRON 284 / EARTH 284. Environmental Geology
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 148, and no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 148. Those with credit for GEOSCI 147 or EARTH 147 may elect EARTH 284 or ENVIRON 284 for only 3 credits.

Deals with interactions between people and Earth. It begins with an introduction to geologic materials and processes and goes on to specific topics such as soil, surface and groundwater, natural hazards (volcanism, landslides, earthquakes, floods, coastal processes), geomedicine, and waste disposal.

ENVIRON 290. Food: The Ecology, Economics, and Ethics of Growing and Eating
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Food systems have environmental, economic, ethical, and political dimensions. They intersect with health, ecological resilience, security, justice, and democracy. The course examines patterns of food production and consumption via histories, case studies and personal accounts, across cultures and across time. Special attention is paid to the possibilities for sustainability and equity.

ENVIRON 300. Special Problems and Research
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits.

Independent study covering different resource issues. Maximum of eight hours to be counted toward degree requirements.

ENVIRON 301 / HISTART 301. Nature, Culture and Landscape
Junior/Senior/permission of instructor. (3). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines human landscape interventions throughout Western history within a series of spatial archetypes that embody various layers of the human/nature dialectic. Focus is on the interplay of cultural beliefs, values, social realities and artistic expressions within the medium of landscape and their impact in contemporary environmental perception.

ENVIRON 302. Topics in Environmental Social Science
(1 - 4). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This special topics course seeks to examine environmental problems and issues from a social science perspective. Specific topics will vary by term.

ENVIRON 303. Topics in Environmental Natural Science
(1 - 4). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This special topics course seeks to examine environmental problems and issues from a natural science perspective. Specific topics will vary by term.

ENVIRON 304. Topics in Culture and Environment
(1 - 4). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This special topics course seeks to examine environmental problems and issues from a humanities perspective. Specific topics will vary by term.

ENVIRON 306. Global Water
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines a critical environmental issue of the 21st century: freshwater scarcity, an issue that intersects with other environmental, economic and political issues such as food, biodiversity, trade, international security, and global justice. Questions are raised concerning international cooperation, local-global interactions, collective action, sustainability, development, trade, North-South relations, equity, and diplomatic practice.

ENVIRON 308. Sustainability and Health
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores how the environment influences health and well-being. In order to tackle this complex topic the physical, psychological, and social dimensions of health are considered. The course then explores how issues like climate change, materialism, and sprawl might impact health and the potential benefits associated with sustainable lifestyles.

ENVIRON 309. GIS Explorations of the Past, Present, and Future
General computer experience is required, including word processing, spreadsheets, and presentations. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course uses geographic information systems (GIS) to help understand and analyze environmental problems as well as spatial questions in the sciences, social sciences, and humanities. A hands-on approach is used to demonstrate GIS principles using a wide variety of examples.

ENVIRON 310. Toxicology: The Study of Environmental Chemicals and Disease
BIOLOGY 162 or 172. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Explores the relationship between environmental chemical exposures and adverse health consequences, examining factors that determine and influence toxicity and exploring the role of chemical exposure in the etiology of specific diseases.

ENVIRON 311 / EEB 320. Rivers, Lakes, and Wetlands: Introduction to Aquatic Ecosystems
One course in BIOLOGY or permission of instructor. (4; 5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Field and lecture based introduction to the scientific study of rivers, lakes, and wetlands. Introduces basic physical/chemical/biological concepts and techniques; emphasized ecological literacy and seeks to develop interpretive skills and reasoning. Includes overview of aquatic fauna and flora, and a survey of the ecology of major types of rivers and streams, lakes, wetlands, and ocean estuaries. Interactions between the hydrological cycle, the landscape, and human activities provide the basic theme around which ecosystem presentations are organized. Lab sections develop basic chemical and biological identification skills during the first half of the course; the second half focuses on weekly field trips to representative ecosystems and their ecological evaluation.

ENVIRON 312 / POLSCI 380 / PUBPOL 312. Environmental Politics and Policy
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an advanced offering on environmental politics and the environmental policy-making process. The course will consider both processes of policy formation and implementation, placing particular emphasis on the development of alternatives to conventional regulatory practices at federal, state, and local levels of government.

ENVIRON 313 / POLSCI 394. Environment and Development: Dilemmas of Power and Place in a Global World
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines the interaction between development and environment in less developed regions of the world. It will focus especially on various aspects of environmental protection and management ranging from conservation, to decentralization of natural resources management, to the emergence of global institutions for environmental governance.

ENVIRON 315 / EEB 315. The Ecology and Evolution of Infectious Diseases
BIOLOGY 100; or BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces the population ecology and evolution of parasites and disease-causing agents impacting human, animal, and plant health. The emphasis will be on patterns of temporal change and spatial spread at the population level. Main themes include the impact of environmental change, particularly in climate, on infectious diseases, the connection between biodiversity and health, the role of disease in conservation, and the co-evolution of hosts and parasites.

ENVIRON 316 / EEB 316 / RCIDIV 316. Introduction to Food Systems
Consent of instructor required. (3). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

The course introduces the ecology of agricultural ecosystems; the cultural and environmental history of food production, and the current ecological and socio-economic crises in food and agriculture, especially as they affect biodiversity and the sustainability of rural and urban communities.

ENVIRON 317. Conservation of Biological Diversity
(3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Overview of historic and present-day causes of species extinction, and of biological principles central to species conservation and sustainable management of ecosystems. Topics covered include episodes of extinction and diversification over earth history; geographic distribution strategies; and sustainable use of ecosystems. Weekly recitation sections discuss material from lectures, assigned readings and films, and perform computer and gaming simulations.

ENVIRON 318 / EEB 318 / RCIDIV 318. Food, Land, and Society
One year of college-level Biology, Environmental Science or Environmental Studies; General Ecology recommended. (4). (ID). May not be repeated for credit. W.

The course introduces the ecology of agricultural ecosystems; thee cultural and environmental history of food production, especially in Michigan; and the current ecological and socio-economic crises in agriculture, especially as they affect biodiversity and the sustainability of rural communities.

ENVIRON 320. Environmental Journalism: Reporting About Science, Policy, and Public Health
Completion of First-Year Writing Requirement. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course give students the basic research and writing skills to cover emerging issues related to the environment and public health. Students learn to produce journalistic writing, which differs markedly from academic writing. The emphasis is on communicating to a wide audience. Students also become more savvy news consumers

ENVIRON 321. Climate Change and Adaptation
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

Climate change is the greatest environmental and development challenge facing the world. Course will introduce students to the following: human dimensions of global climate change; key concepts and examples related to impacts, mitigation, vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation; and how government, civil society, and market actors can jointly solve climate problems related to migration, public health, and urbanization.

ENVIRON 325 / EARTH 325. Environmental Geochemistry
Introductory chemistry. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with the geochemistry of our environment. It focuses on the geochemistry of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere and the ways in which they affect the biosphere. Applications of these principles to present-day problems in environmental geochemistry are discussed.

ENVIRON 329 / ENGLISH 329. Environmental Writing and Great Lakes Literature
Consent of department required. (5 in the half-term). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores some classic examples of nature writing from the Great Lakes region (fiction, non-fiction, and poetry). It takes advantage of the resources of the Biological Station--habitat, trails and lake to stimulate written responses that are descriptive, narrative, and researched.

ENVIRON 335 / AAS 322. Introduction to Environment Politics: Race, Class, and Gender
(4; 3 in the half-term). (SS). (R&E). May not be repeated for credit.

This course analyzes the development of political action from the 1860s to the present. It will analyze the role of race, gender, and class in defining environmental issues and environmental action.

ENVIRON 341 / EARTH 341. Ecosystem Science in the Rockies
Introductory course in Geology, Ecology, or Global Change. (5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming.

This is a 4-week course taught at Camp Davis, WY using the Rocky Mountains as a field laboratory to gain field-based knowledge and experience while developing an understanding of geological and meteorological processes and the distribution and function of grasslands, forests, and alpine ecosystems of the region. This course is designed for majors in geological and environmental sciences, natural resources and other students who have a general interest in this subject matter.

ENVIRON 344 / EARTH 344. Sustainable and Fossil Energy: Options and Consequences
Consent of department required. At least one previous course in physical sciences or engineering. (3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces concepts and environmental consequences of sustainable and fossil energy sources. Students conduct hands-on experiments using alternate energy systems at Camp Davis. In addition, the class travels throughout Wyoming and Idaho visiting and investigating facilities important for power generation.

ENVIRON 345 / POLSCI 331 / SOC 380. Environmental Public Opinion Analysis
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines trends in environmental public opinion, influences on people's concerns about the environment, the depth and strength of concerns, and how environmental concerns affect personal behaviors and the political process. It also introduces students to useful statistical concepts and procedures for analyzing and interpreting public opinion data.

ENVIRON 348 / EEB 348. Forest Ecosystems
Consent of department required. BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Biological Station.

Focused on ecology in forest species and components of ecological systems, this course emphasizes hands-on field study in diverse upland and wetland forests. It stresses integrating topography, soil, climate, and vegetation, plus the dynamics of fire and regeneration ecology. This ecocentric approach is applicable in temperate forest ecosystems throughout the world.

ENVIRON 350. The Built Environment: Introduction to Landscape Change
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an introduction to the role of humans in shaping the built environment. It explores physical design and cultural meaning at various scales and contexts in the landscape. We explore the power of physical design and planning to enrich the human spirit, provide functional needs, interpret cultural history, and sustain natural systems.

ENVIRON 354 / AMCULT 354 / ENGLISH 312. Camp Davis: History and Literature of the Rockies
Consent of department required. (3 in the half-term). (HU). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail.

This course is taught onsite at the University of Michigan's Camp Davis Geology field station south of Jackson Hole, Wyoming. It examines a range of human experiences and expressions of place, centered on the area of Jackson Hole, but extending in conceptual terms across the central and northern Rocky Mountain region and to the American West as a whole.

ENVIRON 356. Environmental History and the Tropical World
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Patterns of historical change in major ecosystems of the tropics and subtropics, in relation to theories of global environmental history. Transformations of natural resources in developing nations as a consequence of colonial governments and capitalist economies since 1800, in tropical forests, savanna lands, and mountain systems, and especially in the rapid escalation since 1945. The rise of modern systems of tropical resources management and conservation.

ENVIRON 360 / PSYCH 384. Behavior and Environment
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Course deals with two central themes: First, environmental problems are people problems, requiring an understanding of how people think, what they care about, and the conditions under which they behave most reasonably. Second, human behavior makes the most sense when studied in the context of the environment, both present and evolutionary. This course builds a model of human nature, based upon research in the field of environmental psychology.

ENVIRON 361 / PSYCH 385. The Psychology of Environmental Stewardship
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with how to reframe and promote a future with a restrained and austere existence. To meet this challenge, behavior-change tools and strategies are developed. Emphasis is on informational and motivational means of changing behavior in a durable manner.

ENVIRON 365. International Environmental Policy
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores institutions, actors, and outcomes in international environmental policy making.

ENVIRON 367. Global Enterprise and Sustainable Development
Senior Standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines how businesses can influence, and are influenced, by issues related to sustainable development. The course identifies external forces and strategy based reasons that motivate corporations to contribute to environmental and social goals. Through guest lectures and case studies, students learn about current best practice and future possibilities.

ENVIRON 370 / ARCH 423 / UP 423. Introduction to Urban and Environmental Planning
(3 - 5). May not be repeated for credit.

ENVIRON 372 / EEB 372. General Ecology Laboratory
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; AND concurrent or prior enrollment in BIOLOGY 281/ENVIRON 281. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course combines a mixture of tools needed to become ecologically proficient. This includes applying the fundamental concepts from ecology, the protocol for conceptualizing and conducting experiments, the statistical tests used to test hypotheses, and the tools needed to present work through communication. The lab exercises have a mixture of ecological practices, field experiments, hypothesis testing, statistical analyses, and written/oral communication.

ENVIRON 375 / ECON 370. Environmental and Resource Economics
ECON 101. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in ECON 471 or 472, or NRE 571 or 583.

A one-semester introduction to Environmental and Natural Resource Economics. Topics include externalities, unpriced goods, cost-benefit analysis, resource scarcity, exhaustible resource depletion, renewable resource harvesting and common property.

ENVIRON 376 / PHIL 376. Environmental Ethics-Living Well with Nature
(3). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores what we do and why we do what we do to the world around us. Without ignoring the theoretical, this course will focus on ethics as it bears on practical, everyday things: using energy, eating food, building houses, flying to far-away destinations, hiking in wild places, watching birds.... Our effects are far reaching: climate change, industrial agriculture and CAFOs, pollution and ecological restoration, biodiversity and species extinctions, wilderness, genetic engineering of plants and animals. We will ask "what is a good way to live in nature?"

ENVIRON 377. Literature and the Environment
(3). (HU). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores human interactions with the natural world or in contrast with a constructed world through literature, including fiction, essays, and poetry.

ENVIRON 380 / EARTH 380. Mineral Resources, Economics, and the Environment
No previous courses in Geology or other sciences are required. (4; 3 - 4 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with mineral resource-related problems in a complex society. The course discusses the origin, distribution, and remaining supplies of mineral resources in terms of the economic, engineering, political, and environmental factors that govern their recovery, processing, and use. Topics covered in the course include nuclear waste disposal, strip mining, continent-scale water transfers, mineral profits and taxation, and estimation of remaining mineral reserves.

ENVIRON 381 / EEB 381. General Ecology
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173; AND a laboratory course in CHEM. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Fundamental concepts and principles of ecology of both plants and animals applied to the study of individual organisms, populations, and communities. Field and laboratory work emphasized the collection and analysis of basic data. A formal introduction to the discipline of ecology and suitable as a prerequisite for intermediate and advanced courses in the subject.

ENVIRON 382 / EDCURINS 382. Introduction to Environmental Education for Sustainable Development
(4). May not be repeated for credit.

As a result of this course, students become certified by the School of Education to teach leading environmental education programs. They learn how to educate a citizenry able and willing to work towards environmental and sustainable development goals, as well as how to develop, implement, and evaluate their own education efforts.

ENVIRON 390 / RCIDIV 390. Environmental Activism: Citizenship in a Republic
It is best to have at least one environmental course prior to this class. (3). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

This course defines environmental activism as a social movement designed to affect positive and sustainable environmental change. We will articulate an overarching set of values to which people can respond, as well as a shared set of symbols, heroes, slogans, and other cultural referents.

ENVIRON 391 / RCIDIV 391. Sustainability and the Campus
An introductory course in Environmental Studies, Global Change, or related field (e.g., ENVIRON 201, 240, 270). (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will cover the concepts and practices of environmental sustainability as they pertain to the campus of this university. Students will design and conduct projects about managing this campus more sustainably than is currently practiced.

ENVIRON 397. Academic Foundations for Environmental Internships
(1). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides students with an academic foundation for completing an experiential learning opportunity. It ensures that students commencing a professional internship have established a clear research agenda associated with that work and have built in a strong academic component that integrates the internship into their course of study.

ENVIRON 398. Environment Internship Program
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. Pass/Fail with Narrative Evaluation.

Undergrads, with the guidance of a faculty advisor, participate in an internship relevant to their field of study.

ENVIRON 399. Junior Honors Seminar
Consent of instructor required. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is intended to start Honors students on their thesis projects. Students will develop a topic of interest into a research proposal. This requires identifying the topic, assessing the pertinent literature, finding a faculty sponsor, and preparing a research design. Course readings and discussions will focus on research methodology.

ENVIRON 404. Cars, Sustainability, and Energy Conversion
CHEM 130 or equivalent. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines the basic chemistry of fuel materials used in transportation applications, such as fuel cells and biogenerated materials. With the growing momentum toward electric vehicles, we also explore topics such as thermodynamic relationships, energy conversion and storage technology, and policy implications of using a rebalanced power grid to supply energy for transportation.

ENVIRON 405. Urban Sprawl: Policy and Politics
ENVIRON 350 or 370. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course investigates land development in America from the perspective of political imperatives and policy frameworks at the local, state, and national levels. It leverages insights from political science, history, law, and urban planning to understand how policy does (and does not) guide land use patterns, and how it might do so differently in the future.

ENVIRON 407 / CEE 307. Sustainable Cities
Junior or Senior standing and two environmental science classes. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Achieving sustainable urban environments requires an interdisciplinary, systems-level approach to ensure cities are both environmentally and economically sustainable. This course explores how multiple disciplines can be integrated to identify and discuss this broad goal, including law, public health, engineering, finance, communication, land planning, and construction.

ENVIRON 408. Land Use Policy, Law, and the Environment
Junior or senior status. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an overview of the policy and legal justifications for and institutional arrangements used to manage the use and development of land in the U.S., focusing especially on the management of privately owned land by state and local governments for environmental protection purposes.

ENVIRON 409 / EEB 487 / NRE 409. Ecology of Fishes
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (3 - 4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W. (Lectures: 3 credits; lectures and lab: 4 credits).

Covers physiological, behavioral, and numerical responses of fishes to biotic and abiotic factors; the relationship between fish and the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of major habitat types; adaptations of fish for survival under different constraints.

ENVIRON 412 / PUBPOL 412. Environmental Values in Public Policy
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Public policy embodies an assortment of value systems. While individual value systems express coherent, consistent approaches, public policy expresses an amalgam of values, with corresponding decrease in coherence/consistency. This course explores the relationships between various environmental values and public policy through analysis of policy issues at local, state, and national levels.

ENVIRON 415 / EEB 424 / NRE 415. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and completion or concurrent enrollment in either ENVIRON 415 or EEB 424 or NRE 415. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 492.

This course will focus on the ways environments shape the behavior and life histories of animals. Because environments pose constraints, behaviors have "better" and "worse" impacts on an organism's survival and reproduction. This course will consider hypothesis in five areas.

ENVIRON 416 / EEB 425 / NRE 416. Field Skills in Wildlife Behavior
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and completion or concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON 415. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 492.

Students gain field skills in testing behavioral ecological hypotheses. Field work stresses repeatable, quantitative observation, generation of testable hypotheses, graphical and statistical data analysis, and oral and written communication.

ENVIRON 421. Restoration Ecology
Junior or senior standing. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is intended as a broad overview of restoration ecology in a variety of ecosystems, both local and international. We first focus on using knowledge of ecosystem functioning to facilitate the recovery of damaged ecosystems. Then we examine restoration projects through case studies, guest speakers, and field trips.

ENVIRON 422 / EEB 440 / NRE 422. Biology of Fishes
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages exam.

ENVIRON 423 / EEB 441 / NRE 423. The Biology of Fishes Laboratory
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This lab provides an intro to field methods used in fish biology and fisheries, and examines the diversity of the Michigan ichthyofauna and major groups of would fishes.

ENVIRON 426 / AOSS 421 / EARTH 421. Introduction of Physical Oceanography
MATH 115 and 116, and an introductory science course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines the fundamentals of physical oceanography; the physical properties of the ocean and water masses; circulation of the atmosphere; wind-driven and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation; tides; surface and internal waves; eddies; and mixing.

ENVIRON 430 / EEB 489 / NRE 430. Soil Ecology
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and 172 and 173, and General Chemistry. Concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON 436/EEB 436 and ENVIRON 435/NRE 435 highly recommended. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Soils as central components of terrestrial ecosystems. Major emphasis is placed on physical, chemical, and biological properties and their relationships to plant growth and ecosystem processes. Understanding is developed using a combination of lectures, field- and lab-based exercises, and individual research.

ENVIRON 431 / EARTH 431. Terrestrial Biomes Past, Present and Future
BIOLOGY 171, or one of EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119, 120, or 205/206; or Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

As the major organizing feature of terrestrial ecosystems, biomes are dependent on the organisms, ecosystems, and climate of the planet. This course surveys important biological innovations, examples of past ecosystems from the fossil record, the relevance of climate to terrestrial environments, and the changing world of today and tomorrow.

ENVIRON 433 / EEB 433 / NRE 433. Ornithology
BIOLOGY 171 and (172 or 174) and 173, or BIOLOGY 195 and 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

During the lecture, students have the opportunity to learn about many unique features of birds. In the mandatory lab, students have the opportunity to learn about birds by using museum specimens, and by observing birds on field trips.

ENVIRON 436 / EEB 436 / NRE 436. Woody Plants: Biology and Identification
BIOLOGY 162 or 171. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Ecology, systematic and identification of trees, shrubs, and vines are studies in weekly field trips to diverse Michigan ecosystems--including upland, wetland, and floodplain forests. Lectures focus on glacial landscape history, biogeography, and ecology of Michigan forests.

ENVIRON 442 / EARTH 442. Earth Surface Processes and Soils
MATH 115 and CHEM 130. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Study of processes resulting in landforms on the Earth's solid surface and the formation of soils on these landforms. Emphasis includes present-day processes as well as the evolution of landforms over geologic time. Several required field trips will examine landforms and processes in southern Michigan.

ENVIRON 449 / NRE 449. Organizational Theory and Change: Issues in Implementing Environmental Programs and Policies
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores how different types of organizations and organizational arrangements can influence organizational decision-making, behavior, and outcomes in complex political arenas, such as endangered species recovery, protected area management, risk assessment, community forestry, and community-based resource management and development.

ENVIRON 451 / EEB 451 / NRE 451. Biology of Mammals
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Evolution, distribution, ecology, behavior, anatomy, and classification of mammals, with emphasis on North American species.

ENVIRON 456 / EEB 456. Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands
BIOLOGY 171 or one introductory biology course and another natural science course. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course aims for students to acquire an understanding of the basic concepts of ecosystem structure and function of the diverse herbaceous and forested wetlands along the Great Lakes coasts.

ENVIRON 467 / AOSS 467 / CHEM 467 / EARTH 465 / ENSCEN 467. Biogeochemical Cycles
MATH 116, CHEM 210, and PHYSICS 240 (or 260). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F, W.

ENVIRON 475 / EHS 588 / NRE 475. Environmental Law
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduces students to environmental law and the impact of the legal process on decisions that affect the environment. Topics include common law tort actions, toxic tort actions, statutory controls of pollution and other environmentally harmful activities. Additional areas include administrative agency structure and performance, constitutional rights to environmental quality and more.

ENVIRON 476 / EEB 476 / NRE 476. Ecosystem Ecology
General Ecology and a 400-level course in Aquatic or Terrestrial Ecology. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

Current theories about the control and function of ecosystems, the approaches and techniques being used to test these theories, and the application of theory to the management and restoration of ecosystems.

ENVIRON 479 / EARTH 477. Hydrogeology
MATH 116; and High school knowledge of PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, and EARTH (GEOSCI) or equivalent. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to physical hydrogeology with particular emphasis on processes and direct applications to geological settings and problem solving. The hydrologic cycle, physical rock framework, and properties of aquifer systems are described and quantified. Groundwater flow and mass transport equations are covered, as well as pump test design and analysis. Natural tracers and groundwater dating are discussed.

ENVIRON 490. War and the Environment: A Lethal Reciprocity
Coursework in environment or political science. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar examines war and environmental degradation. We begin with the recognition that: a) war the and preparation for was typically lead to depletion and degradation of the biosphere; and b) resource mail-distributions, depletion, and degradation can frequently lead to armed conflict within and between territorial states.

ENVIRON 499 / NRE 499. Senior Honors Thesis
Consent of instructor required. ENVIRON 399 and permission of instructor. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Continuing Course. Y grade can be reported at end of the first-term to indicate work in progress. At the end of the second term, the final grade is posted for both term's elections.

With the aid of the course instructor and faculty sponsor, the research plan developed in the Junior Honors Seminar is implemented and data/information is collected, analyzed, and synthesized. An oral presentation is made and the thesis is submitted to the faculty sponsor.

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