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Courses in LSA Physics
The goal of physics is to understand the behavior of matter and energy on every level, from the origins of the universe in the Big Bang to the interior of atoms in your computer screen. In seeking a pure understanding of how the world works, physicists have revolutionized our lives.

Introductory Physics

The Physics Department offers three introductory course sequences: PHYSICS 135/235, PHYSICS 140/240 and PHYSICS 160/260. While these sequences can be mixed (e.g., 140+235), the Department generally encourages students to pursue both terms of a single sequence.

Students with strong high school physics backgrounds are encouraged to take the Honors physics sequence, PHYSICS 160/260. This sequence takes a thoroughly modern approach to both mechanics and electricity & magnetism. PHYSICS 160/260 is the preferred sequence for students interested in any science concentration, especially physics. Students do not need to be LSA Honors Program members to enroll in PHYSICS 160/260.

Prospective physical science and engineering students should elect PHYSICS 140/240 because the content is aligned with the requirements of concentration programs in these areas. Prospective life science students and those interested in the health professions should elect PHYSICS 135/235. Students who feel their mathematics preparation is weak, especially those who have not taken calculus, should consider enrolling in PHYSICS 120. Any student unsure about these options is encouraged to make an appointment to speak with a physics adviser.

Physics (PHYSICS)
PHYSICS 106. Everyday Physics
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. It is recommended that School of Education students take PHYSICS 420.

PHYSICS 107. 20th-Century Concepts of Space, Time, and Matter
High school algebra and geometry. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. F.

The course is intended to acquaint students with some of the most important conceptual developments in physics in the 20th century.

PHYSICS 109 / CHEM 109. Natural Science: Bridging the Gaps
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The class will be an interdisciplinary, team-taught introduction to the scientific method, involving subject matter from physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, biology, and ethics. It will employ an active classroom. An important component will be demonstrations which will provide nearly hands-on experience with relevant phenomena.

PHYSICS 110. From Alchemy through Quarks: The Search for a Unified Understanding of the Natural Universe
(3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHYSICS 111. The Evolution of Scientific Thought
High school algebra and trigonometry. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a Freshman Seminar that will trace the evolution of scientific thought from antiquity to the early 20th century. Although there will be an emphasis on physics and astronomy, selected topics in medicine, mathematics, biology, and chemistry will also be covered.

PHYSICS 112. Cosmology: The Science of the Universe
Although no science courses are required, high school physics would be helpful. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

PHYSICS 114. Physics First-Year Seminar in the Natural Sciences
(3). (NS). (BS). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

How society perceives physics and physicists naturally evolves, driven by any number of humanistic and technological factors. The roles that physics play to address societal issues are as vital and critical as ever. This seminar offers emerging topics of broad interest.

PHYSICS 116. From Quarks to Cosmos
(3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces the modern understanding of the physical universe. We discuss the elementary particles that constitute the building blocks for all matter, and we discuss the hot dense beginnings of the universe known as the big bang. We convey the deep connection between the physics of the subatomic domain, and the physics of the cosmos.

PHYSICS 119 / CHEM 108 / EARTH 130. The Physical World
High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

The physics, chemistry, and pre-calculus (algebraic) concepts of comprehensive Earth and planetary science are covered for those students who feel less than fully prepared for existing college-level science classes. The course is aimed at students in need of a science course, particularly those who will not readily select more than one physical science course as undergraduates at UM. Weekly discussions by a GSI will complement and amplify the lectures.

PHYSICS 120. Foundations of Physics
(3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is an introductory course on the foundations of physics tailored for students seeking to be better prepared for success in the core introductory courses (PHYSICS 135, for life/health sciences and kinesiology, or PHYSICS 140, for science and engineering fields). The course aims to develop skills and abilities needed for problem-solving within the conceptual framework of introductory physics.

PHYSICS 121. Physics for Architects
High school algebra and trigonometry. (5). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to physical principles and methods relevant to architectural studies. Among the topics covered are: motion, forces, statics, energy, fluid behavior, heat and heat transfer, electricity and circuits.

PHYSICS 135. Physics for the Life Sciences I
MATH 115, 120, 185, or 295. Students should elect PHYSICS 136 concurrently. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 125, 140 or 160.

Physics 135 and 235 is the best introductory physics sequence for students planning concentrations in any of the life sciences, as well as students planning to pursue medicine, kinesiology, or the health sciences as a profession. PHYSICS 135 is divided into three main topics: the mechanics of life, energy and energy flow, and fluid behavior.

PHYSICS 136. Physics for the Life Sciences Laboratory I
Concurrent election with PHYSICS 135 is strongly recommended. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 127, 141 or 161.

PHYSICS 136 is a two-hour weekly laboratory designed to accompany PHYSICS 135. This lab introduces students to experimental methods in science. Students make observations, analyze their data and compare their results to predictions based on theory. The course material is focused on understanding the principles of classical mechanics.

PHYSICS 140. General Physics I
MATH 115, 120, 185 or 295. Students should elect PHYSICS 141 concurrently. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 125, 135, 139 or 160.

PHYSICS 140 is the first of a three-term sequence in general physics consisting of PHYSICS 140, 240 and 340. This sequence is primarily for students in the physical sciences and engineering. PHYSICS 140 offers an introduction to classical mechanics, the physics of motion. Topics include: vectors, linear motion, projectiles, relative velocity, circular motion, Newton's laws, particle dynamics, work and energy, linear momentum, torque, angular momentum, gravitation, planetary motion, fluid statics and dynamics, simple harmonic motion, waves and sound.

PHYSICS 141. Elementary Laboratory I
Concurrent election with PHYSICS 140 or 160 is strongly recommended. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 127, 136 or 161.

One two-hour period of laboratory work each week designed to accompany PHYSICS 140.

PHYSICS 145. General Physics
MATH 115 or MATH 175 or MATH 185 or MATH 295, completed with a minimum grade of C- or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PHYSICS 145 and 141 are normally elected concurrently. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 125, 140, or 160.

PHYSICS 160. Honors Physics I
MATH 115, 120, 185 or 295. Students should elect PHYSICS 161 or 141 concurrently. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 125, 135 or 140.

PHYSICS 160 covers the fundamental principles of mechanics using a modern perspective. It emphasizes the applicability of these laws in systems ranging from binary stars to nuclear collisions. This course is well suited for students considering a concentration in the physical sciences or mathematics.

PHYSICS 161. Honors Introductory Mechanics Lab
Concurrent election with PHYSICS 160 strongly recommended. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 127, 136 or 141.

PHYSICS 161 is a three-hour weekly laboratory designed to accompany PHYSICS 160. This lab course stresses the connection between physical measurements and theoretical concepts with extensive use of modern computing techniques.

PHYSICS 169. The Physical Universe: An Introduction to Modern Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology
High school mathematics. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted for students who are enrolled in or have completed PHYSICS 112.

This course divides the cosmos into four scales of astrophysical inquiry - the whole universe, galaxies, stars, and planets. Providing windows to view the operations of nature, these astronomical entities experience life cycles from birth to death. Cosmic evolution is driven by the basic laws of physics.

PHYSICS 210. Energy for our Future
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

We explore the physics, politics, economics and environmental impact of the production and use of known sources of energy including fossil fuels, nuclear, wind, solar, geothermal and hydroelectric. Students develop a viable energy plan for the future that weighs cost, environmental and human risk, and larger geopolitical impacts.

PHYSICS 235. Physics for the Life Sciences II
PHYSICS 135; and MATH 115, 120 185, or 295. Students should elect PHYSICS 236 concurrently. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 126, 240 or 260.

PHYSICS 135 and 235 is the best introductory physics sequence for students planning concentrations in any of the life sciences, as well as students planning to pursue medicine, kinesiology, or the health sciences as a profession. PHYSICS 235 is divided into three main topics: electricity and magnetism, waves and imaging, and nuclear physics and astrophysics.

PHYSICS 236. Physics for the Life Sciences Laboratory II
Concurrent election with PHYSICS 235 is strongly recommended. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 128, 241 or 261.

This course is a two-hour weekly laboratory designed to accompany PHYSICS 235. This lab introduces students to experimental methods in science. Students make observations, analyze their data and compare their results to predictions based on the standard laws of physics. The course material is focused on understanding the principles of electricity and magnetism, including light and wave phenomena.

PHYSICS 240. General Physics II
PHYSICS 140 or 160; and MATH 116, 121, 156, 186, or 296. Students should elect PHYSICS 241 concurrently. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 126, 235, 239 or 260.

PHYSICS 240 is a continuation of PHYSICS 140, and covers topics in electricity and magnetism: charge, Coulomb's law, electric fields Gauss' law, electric potential, capacitors and dielectrics, current and resistance, EMF and circuits, magnetic fields, Biot-Savart law, Amperes law, Faraday's Law of Induction, and simple AC circuits.

PHYSICS 241. Elementary Laboratory II
Concurrent election with PHYSICS 240 or 260 is strongly recommended. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 128, 236, or 261. F, W, Sp.

One two-hour period of laboratory work each week designed to accompany PHYSICS 240.

PHYSICS 260. Honors Physics II
PHYSICS 140 or 160; and MATH 116, 121, 156, 186 or 296. Students should elect PHYSICS 261 or 241 concurrently. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 126, 235 or 240.

PHYSICS 260 is a continuation of PHYSICS 160 and introduces the theory of electromagnetic phenomena. This course is well suited for students considering a concentration in the physical sciences or mathematics.

PHYSICS 261. Honors Electricity and Magnetism Lab
Concurrent election with PHYSICS 260 strongly recommended. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 128, 236 or 241.

PHYSICS 261 is a three-hour weekly laboratory designed to accompany PHYSICS 260. This lab course stresses the connection between physical measurements and theoretical concepts through hands-on investigation and data analysis.

PHYSICS 288. Physics of Music
(3). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 489. No previous expertise in either physics or music is required.

PHYSICS 290 / BIOPHYS 290. Physics of the Body and Mind
PHYSICS 125 or 135 or 140 or 160. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) MATH 115 or equivalent AP credits. (3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

The course discusses and explores basic physical concepts, and apply them to the human body, organs, and cells. Its aim is to provide understanding of biological function in terms of fundamental physics principles. It is intended for students interested in the application of physics to biology, biochemistry, physiology, psychology, genetics, medicine, bioengineering and related life sciences.

PHYSICS 333. PHYSICS 140 Tutor
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be repeated for credit. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Students enrolled in this experiential course will be peer leaders for PHYSICS 140 students. Peer Leaders will conduct study group sessions under the direction of the course lecturer after receiving training from staff at the Science Learning Center.

PHYSICS 334. PHYSICS 240 Tutor
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be repeated for credit. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Students enrolled in this experiential course will be peer leaders for students in PHYSICS 240. Peer Leaders will conduct study group sessions under the direction of the course lecturer after receiving training from staff at the Science Learning Center.

PHYSICS 340. Waves, Heat, and Light
One of: PHYSICS 235 or 240 or 260; and one of: MATH 215 or 255 or 285 or 295. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Concurrent election of PHYSICS 341 is strongly recommended. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is the third term of the introductory physics sequence. The topics covered include thermodynamics, light and optics, the wave equation, and special relativity.

PHYSICS 341. Waves, Heat, and Light Lab
One of: PHYSICS 235 or 240 or 260. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Concurrent election of PHYSICS 340 is strongly recommended. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This lab course accompanies PHYSICS 340. Six experiments are performed on topics such as temperature measurement, black body radiation, optics, interference, diffraction, and the speed of light.

PHYSICS 351. Methods of Theoretical Physics I
One of: MATH 215 or 255 or 285 or 295; and one of: MATH 216 or 256 or 286 or 296 or 316; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is required for undergraduate physics majors and should be taken before the theoretical physics core courses. The idea of teaching mathematical physics as a required subject separate from the physics core courses is both to help students appreciate the mathematical basis of physics theories and to acquire the expected level of competence in mathematical manipulations.

PHYSICS 360. Honors Physics III
One of: PHYSICS 235 or 240 or 260; and one of: MATH 215 or 255, or 285 or 295. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is the third term of the introductory physics honors sequence. The topics covered in the course include an in depth study of thermodynamics, light and optics, the wave equation, and special relativity.

PHYSICS 370 / BIOPHYS 370 / CHEM 370. Physical and Chemical Principles Behind Biology and Medicine
MATH 215; and PHYSICS 235 or 240. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) CHEM 130 or placement in 210. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F, W.

This course is an introduction to the fundamental physical and chemical principles of biophysics. It covers quantum aspects of matter, thermodynamics, kinetics and statistical mechanics in the context of biological applications.

PHYSICS 390. Introduction to Modern Physics
One of: MATH 216 or 256 or 286 or 296 or 316. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PHYSICS 340. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a quantitative introduction to modern physics. It includes a survey of Quantum Mechanics, Atomic, Solid State, Nuclear and Particle Physics.

PHYSICS 401. Intermediate Mechanics
PHYSICS 340 or 360 and one of: MATH 216, 256, 286, 296 or 316; or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit.

Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics: Kinematics and dynamics in one, two, and three dimensions, vector analysis; motion under gravity, planetary motion; free and forced, damped and undamped harmonic oscillators; the conservation laws of mechanics; inertial and accelerated frames of reference, fictitious forces; rigid body mechanics; coupled oscillators.

PHYSICS 402. Optics
PHYSICS 340 or 360, and one of: MATH 216, 256, 286, 296 or 316: or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. A student can receive credit for only one of EECS 334 or PHYSICS 402.

Topics studied cover the phenomena of physical optics, reflection, refraction, interference, diffraction, and polarization interpreted in terms of the wave theory of light. Selected topics in contemporary optics, such as adaptive optics, fiber optics, human vision, etc. also will be covered.

PHYSICS 405. Intermediate Electricity and Magnetism
PHYSICS 340 or 360, and one of: MATH 216, 256, 286, 296 or 316; or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides a rigorous introduction to electricity and magnetism, suitable for junior year physics majors or engineering students. Subjects include static electric fields in vacuum, in matter and in vacuum and matter. Also includes time-dependent phenomena, electromagnetic induction and Maxwell's equations.

PHYSICS 406. Statistical and Thermal Physics
PHYSICS 390 or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The course in an introduction to thermal processes, including the classical laws of thermodynamics and their statistical foundations. Topics discussed are: basic probability concepts, statistical description of systems of particles, thermal interaction, microscopic basis of macroscopic concepts such as temperature and entropy, laws of thermodynamics, elementary kinetic theory of transport processes.

PHYSICS 411. Introduction to Computational Physics
PHYSICS 401 and [MATH 216 or 256 or 286 or 296 or 316]. Some familiarity with a computer language. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to techniques of computational physics with applications in optics, atomic, solid-state, nuclear and particle physics.

PHYSICS 413 / CMPLXSYS 541. Introduction to Nonlinear Dynamics and the Physics of Complexity
PHYSICS 401 or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

An introduction to nonlinear science with an elementary treatment from the point of view of the physics of chaos and fractal growth.

PHYSICS 415. Special Problems for Undergraduates
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

PHYSICS 417 / BIOPHYS 417 / CHEM 417. Dynamical Processes in Biophysics
MATH 216 or 256 or 286 or 296 or 316; and PHYSICS 340 or BIOPHYS 370 or CHEM 463. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The physical basis of diffusive processes in biology and biochemistry, and optical spectroscopic means for measuring its rates. Topics include: membrane electrical potentials, nerve impulses, synaptic transmission, the physics of chemoreception by cells, motion and reaction kinetics of membrane components, optical microscopy, visible and UV light absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence, quasielastic light scattering, mathematics of random fluctuations, and chaotic processes in biology.

PHYSICS 420. Physics for Educators
School of Education concentrators. (3). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PHYSICS 106. W.

This course is a survey course for students preparing to teach at the elementary classroom level. The goal of the course is to provide a good and practical appreciation of the basic laws that govern our universe. In addition to homework questions there will be a variety of hands-on activities designed to demonstrate the rules of physics in action which might be adapted for use in elementary classrooms.

PHYSICS 421. Physics Lab for Educators
Restricted to Education concentrators. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Concurrent registration in PHYSICS 420. (1). May not be repeated for credit.

A laboratory course in basic physics emphasizing the development of classroom demonstrations.

PHYSICS 424. Physics in Action
[PHYSICS 125, 135, 140, or 160] or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides elementary pre-service teachers with the opportunity to develop a deeper conceptual understanding of the basic laws of the universe and skills for teaching and assessing this understanding to elementary students.

PHYSICS 433 / BIOPHYS 433. Biocomplexity
CHEM 417 or PHYSICS 417, or PHYSICS 406; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course on biocomplexity explores concepts of nonlinear dynamics and the interplay between chaos and order in biological systems.

PHYSICS 435. Gravitational Physics
PHYSICS 390 and 401; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

PHYSICS 438. Electromagnetic Radiation
PHYSICS 405. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHYSICS 441. Advanced Laboratory I
PHYSICS 390 and any 400-level Physics course. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

PHYSICS 442. Advanced Laboratory II
PHYSICS 441. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

This is the second semester advanced laboratory course. A wide selection of individual experiments are offered. Students must select 5 experiments from several different areas of physics in consultation with the lab instructor.

PHYSICS 450 / BIOPHYS 450. Laboratory Techniques in Biophysics
BIOPHYS 370 or CHEM 370 or PHYSICS 370; or PHYSICS 390; or CHEM 452 or BIOLCHEM 452; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This laboratory course teaches essential laboratory skills in biophysics through hands-on experiments, computational work, and a supporting lecture.

PHYSICS 452. Methods of Theoretical Physics II
PHYSICS 351. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is an advanced course for undergraduate physics majors who need necessary preparation for graduate school. This course is also recommended to the first-year graduate student. The course will cover 1) group theory; 2) Hilbert Spaces; 3) special functions and properties; 4) boundary value problems and Green's function technique; and 5) calculus of variations.

PHYSICS 453. Quantum Mechanics
PHYSICS 390; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHYSICS 457. Particle Physics and Cosmology
PHYSICS 453; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

This course is an introduction to particle physics and cosmology. It covers the following: quarks and leptons and their interactions; conservation laws and symmetries; gauge theories and the standard model of particle physics; the expanding universe; nucleosynthesis; dark matter; and dark energy in the universe and large scale structure. Students are assumed to have basic knowledge of quantum mechanics and special relativity.

PHYSICS 460. Quantum Mechanics II
PHYSICS 453; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

PHYSICS 463. Introduction to Solid State Physics
PHYSICS 453; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

PHYSICS 465. Senior Seminar
Junior and Senior Physics concentrators. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHYSICS 470 / CMPLXSYS 470. Experiments in Nonlinear Dynamics
One of: PHYSICS 125 or 135 or 140; and one of MATH 115 or 185; each with a minimum grade of C. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

The ideas of nonlinear science are essential to the modern scholar with beneficial applications ranging from economic forecasting, climate modeling and social networking. This course introduces the core concepts of nonlinear dynamics through laboratory experiments on physical systems.

PHYSICS 481 / PUBPOL 481. Science, Technology and Public Policy
Junior standing; introductory physics courses preferred. (3). May not be repeated for credit. May not be included in a concentration plan in Physics.

This course 1) addresses some of the contemporary issues affecting the environment in which physics education and research take place, and 2) reviews current major technical and policy challenges facing science. Additional emphasis on the issue of ethics in science and how unethical behavior impacts science and national policy.

PHYSICS 496. Senior Thesis, I
Consent of instructor required. Permission of departmental concentration advisor. (2 - 3). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit. Continuing Course. Y grade can be reported at end of the first-term to indicate work in progress. At the end of the second term of PHYSICS 497, the final grade is posted for both term's elections. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

PHYSICS 497. Senior Thesis II
Consent of instructor required. Permission of departmental concentration advisor. (2 - 3). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

PHYSICS 498. Introduction to Research for Honors Students
Consent of instructor required. Permission of departmental concentration advisor. (2 - 3). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit. Continuing Course. Y grade can be reported at end of the first-term to indicate work in progress. At the end of the second term of PHYSICS 499, the final grade is posted for both term's elections. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

PHYSICS 499. Introduction to Research for Honors Students
Consent of instructor required. Permission of Physics concentration advisor. (2 - 3). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

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