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Courses in LSA Psychology
Undergraduate courses in psychology give students an opportunity to learn what research has shown about:
  • how behavior is motivated;
  • how we perceive, learn, and think;
  • how individuals differ from one another;
  • how the personality develops from infancy to maturity and is expressed by behavior; and
  • how interpersonal factors affect human relationships in the home, on the job, and in the community.
Course Prerequisites. Even where it is not specifically stated, an instructor may waive a course prerequisite and grant qualified students permission to elect a course. When such permission is granted, the instructor should email psych.saa@umich.edu. Courses which may not be used as part of a concentration in Psychology are identified in the course listings.

Psychology Independent Study courses

The Psychology Department offers a number of undergraduate-level independent study courses. This provides an opportunity for students to receive course credit for the academic component of their work when they are:
  • working in a research lab,
  • conducting their own research,
  • performing an in-depth study on a psychological topic, or
  • participating in an internship or volunteer opportunity.
When a particular area of psychology is not covered by a regular course offering, an independent study course provides students knowledge and experience in that area. Course content, assignments, meeting times and grade requirements are arranged with a psychology faculty member. More ... List of courses: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/psych/downloads/Concentration%20Packets/Independent%20Study%20Course%20Descriptions%28Final%29.pdf
Psychology (PSYCH)
PSYCH 111. Introduction to Psychology
(4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PSYCH 112, 114, or 115. PSYCH 111 may not be included in a concentration plan in Psychology. Students in PSYCH 111 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects. F, W, Sp, Su.

PSYCH 112. Introduction to Psychology as a Natural Science
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PSYCH 111, 114, 115, or 116. PSYCH 112 may not be included in a Psychology major. Students in PSYCH 112 are required to spend five hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

PSYCH 114. Honors Introduction to Psychology
LSA Honors Students. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Non-honors students must obtain permission of instructor. (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PSYCH 111, 112, or 115. May not be included in a concentration plan in Psychology. Students in PSYCH 114 are required to spend three hours outside of class participating as subjects in research projects.

A general introduction to the basic concepts and problems of psychology as a behavioral science.

PSYCH 120. First-Year Seminar in Psychology as a Social Science
Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit. May not be included in a concentration plan in Psychology.

A small seminar, which will introduce entering students to the topic of Psychology and issues which are important in the field of psychology. Through this seminar, students will be able to develop an understanding of how various theories and applications of the discipline of psychology may be helpful in understanding the world.

PSYCH 121. First-Year Seminar in Psychology as a Natural Science
Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. May not be included in a concentration plan in Psychology.

A small seminar which will introduce entering students to the topic of Psychology and issues which are important in the field of psychology. Through this seminar, students will be able to develop an understanding of how various theories and applications of the discipline of psychology may be helpful in understanding the world.

PSYCH 122 / SOC 122 / UC 122. Intergroup Dialogues
(2). May be repeated for a maximum of 4 credits. May not be used as a prerequisite for, or included in a major in Psychology.

In a multicultural society, discussion about issues of conflict and community are needed to facilitate understanding between social groups. In this intergroup dialogue, students will participate in semi-structured face-to-face meetings with students from other social identity groups. They will discuss relevant reading material and they will explore their own and the other group's experiences in various social and institutional contexts. Participants will examine narratives and historical, psychological and sociological materials that address each group's experience within a U.S. context.

PSYCH 200. Independent Study in Psychological Issues
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, 115, 120, or 121. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 4 credits.

This independent study course allows students to work closely with a faculty member to study a topic of interest beyond the classroom setting. Students work closely with faculty to design their independent study project.

PSYCH 211. Project Outreach
Prior or concurrent enrollment in an introductory Psychology course. (3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term. Credits may not be included in a concentration plan in Psychology. This course may only be repeated if a different section is selected. All sections of Outreach count as an experiential lab for the Psychology major; they do not count as a lab for the Biopsychology, Cognition, and Neuroscience major. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

A variety of projects exhibiting the application of psychological principles in natural settings. Lectures, discussions, field work, weekly journals and mid-term and final papers.

PSYCH 218. Sophomore Seminar in Psychology as a Social Science
An introductory course in psychology or similar social science. (3 - 4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar introduces students to topics of interest in the field of psychology. Content includes material drawn from current research and scholarship on topics specific to faculty research interests. The goal is to help students understand how theory and methods of the Social Science disciplines are applied to particular issues in psychology.

PSYCH 225 / WOMENSTD 225. Psychology of Human Sexuality
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Does not count as a breadth course for Psychology or BCN majors.

This course addresses social and psychological aspects of sexuality, including sexual orientations, sexual adjustment and satisfaction, alternative sexuality's, sexually transmitted infections, sexual disorders, sex work and the social construction of sexuality.

PSYCH 226. Undergraduate Research in Psychology
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Credit is granted for a combined total of 8 credits in ay UROP research course.

This two term course offers research experience to first- and second-year students in an area of mutual interest to the student and to faculty members from the Psychology Department. This course is administered through the Undergraduate Research Opportunity Program. Apply at: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/urop

PSYCH 230. Introduction to Biopsychology
(PSYCH 111 or 112 or 114 or 115) or (BIOLOGY 162 or 163 or 171 or 172 or 195). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Basic familiarity with biology and chemistry. (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduces the kinds of questions traditionally addressed by physiological and comparative psychologists. Biopsychology is the study of how psychological processes relate to the brain and to evolution. A major focus is on how brain processes cause psychological events and behavior, and how psychological events are encoded in the brain (physiological psychology or behavioral neuroscience).

PSYCH 240. Introduction to Cognitive Psychology
PSYCH 111 or 112 or 114 or 115 or 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is a general introduction to cognitive psychology. Topics covered include perception, learning, memory, language, imagery, reasoning, problem-solving and decision making. In covering these topics, relevant methods, data and theory will be reviewed. Historical and interdisciplinary aspects of many of these topics will be touched upon.

PSYCH 242 / LING 209. Language and Human Mind
(4; 3 in the half-term). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to the fascinating "cognitive revolution" in contemporary language study, illuminating the Chomskyan shift away from speech behavior or "languages" as the objects of inquiry to the experimental and theoretical study of the biological/cognitive and mechanisms underlying our unique human capacity for language.

PSYCH 245. Cognitive Neuroscience
PSYCH 111, 112, or 114. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

How does the brain enable the mind? Answering this question is the goal of cognitive neuroscience, a relatively new field of study that represents the union of human neuropsychology, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and neurophysiology.

PSYCH 250. Introduction to Developmental Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an overview of the milestones of human development from conception to death. The physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth of children, adolescents, and adults are examined, as are the various factors (e.g., genetics, parenting, peer groups, schooling, and the media) that influence development. The goal is to provide an introduction to the main issues, central theories, and dominant research methods in development psychology.

PSYCH 260. Introduction to Organizational Psychology
One of: PSYCH 111 or 112 or 114 or 115 or 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will offer a broad-ranging introduction to the field and aims to help students to develop understanding and skills in relation to a variety of subjects, including work attitudes and motivation, work design, group dynamics, leadership, decision making, processes of organization structure and design, and organizational culture.

PSYCH 270. Introduction to Psychopathology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will introduce students to the field of clinical psychology and abnormal and deviant behavior. It will have a life span coverage, beginning with problems of life span infancy, childhood, adolescence, adult development and the elderly. It will survey bio-psychosocial perspectives with respect to the problems described.

PSYCH 280. Introduction to Social Psychology
One of: PSYCH 111 or 112 or 114 or 115 or 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

An introductory study of the interrelationships of the functioning of social systems and the behavior and attitudes of individuals.

PSYCH 290. Introduction to the Psychology of Personality
One of: PSYCH 111 or 112 or 114 or 115 or 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

A selective overview of major theories of personality. The orientation is systematic rather than critical. The goal of instruction is to provide students with a mastery of the various concepts and their interrelations within each theory as well as with an appreciation of their empirical basis.

PSYCH 291 / WOMENSTD 291. Introduction to the Psychology of Women and Gender
PSYCH 111, 112, 114, 115 or 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course focuses on feminist theories and empirical findings on the psychology of women and gender. Specifically, the lived experiences of women, the social construction of gender, the gendered nature of social institutions, and the way that gender intersects with race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, social class, and other social categories.

PSYCH 302. Special Problems Lab in Psychology/Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. PSYCH 230 or 240 and permission of instructor. (3 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be used as a lab, with advisor approval, in the major in Biopsychology, Cognition, and Neuroscience.

PSYCH 303. Research Methods in Psychology
One of STATS 250(350) or 425 or MATH 425; and one of PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This writing-intensive course provides an overview of the how's and why's of research in psychology, covering such topics as library resources, design, ethics, APA-style writing, and statistics and such a general strategies as case studies and qualitative research, observations and field studies, surveys and questionnaires, quasi-experiments, experiments of nature, and laboratory experiments. It consists of a weekly lecture, in which general ideas about research will be presented, and a weekly lab/discussion in which research projects will be planned and presented.

PSYCH 304. Practicum in Teaching and Leading Groups
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115 and permission of instructor. (2 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of 12 credits may be elected through PSYCH 304, 305, 306, 307, and 308. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration.

PSYCH 305. Practicum in Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term. A maximum of 12 credits may be elected through PSYCH 304, 305, 306, 307, and 308. A total of six credits of PSYCH letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. PSYCH 305 must be taken for at least three credits to count as an experiential lab in the Psychology concentration.

Students will participate in a class which includes participation in a practicum setting as well as classroom lecture and discussion as well as completion of readings, journals, projects, papers and examinations as required.

PSYCH 306. Project Outreach Group Leading
Consent of instructor required. PSYCH 211 and one of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115 and permission of instructor. (3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of 12 credits may be elected through PSYCH 304, 305, 306, 307, and 308. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration.

PSYCH 307. Directed Experiences with Children
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115 and permission of instructor. (3 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 7 credits. A maximum of 12 credits may be elected through PSYCH 304, 305, 306, 307, and 308. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

PSYCH 308. Peer Advising Practicum in Psychology
Consent of instructor required. Admission by application. At least junior standing in the Psychology or Brain, Behavior and Cognitive Sciences concentration. (2 - 3). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of 12 credits may be elected through PSYCH 304, 305, 306, 307, and 308. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration.

PSYCH 310 / SOC 320 / UC 320. Processes of Intergroup Dialogues Facilitation
Admission by application. At least junior standing and PSYCH 122 or SOC 122. (3). (R&E). May not be repeated for credit. May be used as an experiential lab in the Psychology concentration. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration.

Designed to give students a foundation in the skills and knowledge needed to facilitate multicultural group interactions, including structured intergroup dialogues. Topics include: basic group facilitation skills and their applications to multicultural settings; social identity group development; prejudice and stereotyping and their effects on groups; etc.

PSYCH 311 / SOC 321 / UC 321. Practicum in Facilitating Intergroup Dialogues
PSYCH 310/SOC 320 and permission of instructor. (4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be repeated for credit. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration.

This practicum follows PSYCH 310 or SOC 320, and requires applied work in facilitating intergroup dialogues. Students also participate in weekly supervision seminars to discuss their work in the dialogue groups. They also discuss theory and practice of group observation, in-out group conflict intervention skills, intergroup communication, and community building.

PSYCH 312 / SOC 375 / UC 375. Intergroup Conflict and Coexistence: Religion, Ethnicity and Culture
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines examples of social conflict based on religion, ethnicity and culture, interdisciplinary theories that help to understand the nature of such conflict, and current coalition building and coexistence work among various religious, ethnic and cultural groups. Experiential activities enhance learning about intergroup conflict and coexistence work.

PSYCH 313 / RELIGION 369. Psychology and Religion
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 316 / AAS 331. The World of the Black Child
One course in Psychology or Afro-American and African Studies. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 317 / AMCULT 306. Community Research
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (4). May not be repeated for credit. PSYCH 317 and 318 may be used as an experiential lab in the Psychology concentration. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Community-based courses may be counted towards the psychology concentration.

This course introduces students to basic methods of community research including the use of archival and census data, needs assessment techniques, resource analysis and elementary program evaluation. Emphasis is given to collaborative research which involves the community as a partner in establishing the research agenda and procedures. Readings will consist of two books and four to six additional readings each week. Students will complete a journal that is a synthesis and integration of the readings, an in-class midterm, and a group research paper. Students will present their research paper in a poster session.

PSYCH 318 / COMM 318. Media and Violence
COMM 281 strongly recommended. (4). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to students who have completed COMM/PSYCH 481, Media & Violence (Crse ID #019987).

This course examines the psychological causes of aggressive violent behavior and the theoretical and empirical connections between violence in society and portrayals of violence in the mass media. It surveys the research on the physiological, psychological, and environmental factors implicated in the development of habitual aggressive and violent behavior and examines the theories that explain how exposure to violence in the mass media adds to the effects of these other factors causing aggressive and violent behavior.

PSYCH 319 / AMCULT 319. Empowering Families and Communities
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (4). May not be repeated for credit. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Community-based courses may be counted towards the psychology concentration. F.

This course, organized around the dual themes of empowerment and community, introduces students to the principles and practices of community psychology. Students will be trained to implement a brief intervention designed to address the needs of children, youth or parents.

PSYCH 322. Field Practicum in Research Techniques for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290, and permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Credit is granted for a combined total of six credits of PSYCH 322, 323, 326, 327. Credits may not be counted in a concentration plan in Psychology or BBCS. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This field practicum course offers an opportunity to apply academic knowledge in natural science within the context of a research setting. Credit is granted for a combined total of twelve credits of PSYCH 404, PSYCH 405, PSYCH 322 and PSYCH 323, and for a maximum of fifteen credits for PSYCH 211, PSYCH 404, PSYCH 405, PSYCH 322 and PSYCH 323. This course may be taken for a maximum of two terms and/or four credits with the same instructor. These credits do not count towards the Psychology concentration.

PSYCH 323. Field Practicum in Research Techniques for Psychology as a Social Science
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290, and permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Credit is granted for a combined total of six credits of PSYCH 322, 323, 326, 327. Credits may not be counted in a concentration plan in Psychology. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

This field practicum course offers an opportunity to apply academic knowledge in social science within the context of a research setting. The course provides experience and education in research techniques. The student works with the instructor on various aspects of psychological research, completes readings, keeps a journal and completes a paper which integrates the readings and experiences in the research setting.

PSYCH 324 / SOC 324 / UC 324. Advanced Practicum in Intergroup Relations
Consent of instructor required. UC 320/PSYCH 310/SOC 320. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Research-based courses may be counted towards the Psychology concentration.

This course is for students doing advanced applied work in intergroup relations.

PSYCH 325 / AMCULT 321. Practicum in the Multicultural Community
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May not be repeated for credit. A total of six credits of PSYCH letter-graded experiential courses may be counted for the Psychology concentration. PSYCH 325 must be taken for at least three credits to count as an experiential lab in the Psychology concentration. No more than 6 credits of directed readings/internships may be counted toward the American Culture major.

This experiential field course involves two visits per week to an African-American, Arab-American, or Latino community in Detroit. Students will be assigned to work with community-based organizations on projects to improve the well- being of children and families. Projects involve activities such as tutoring, developing outreach activities, assisting in child care settings, and working on community education projects. Internships will be supervised by the instructor and program staff.

PSYCH 326. Faculty Directed Early Research for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. One of: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290 with at least a grade of C. (1 - 4). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A student may elect a combined maximum of 6 credits of PSYCH 322, 323, 326 and 327. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Research-based courses may be counted towards the Psychology concentration.

The student works with the instructor on various aspects of psychological research, completes readings, collects and analyzes data and produces a written report as directed by the instructor.

PSYCH 327. Faculty Directed Early Research for Psychology as a Social Science
Consent of instructor required. One of: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290 with at least a grade of C. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A student may elect a combined maximum of 6 credits of PSYCH 322, 323, 326 and 327. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Research-based courses may be counted towards the Psychology concentration.

The student works with the instructor on various aspects of psychological research, completes readings, collects and analyzes data and produces a written report as directed by the instructor.

PSYCH 328. Research Lab for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. Concurrent research participation in a Psychology lab and one of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290, and permission of instructor. (1). (BS). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected four times for credit.

This course offers an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students make their own arrangements to work in a psychology research lab; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor and research group to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to the research topic and techniques being used; and create some form of written product that discusses the research and the student's participation in the research process.

PSYCH 329. Research Lab for Psychology as a Social Science
Consent of instructor required. Concurrent research participation in a Psychology lab and one of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290, and permission of instructor. (1). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be elected four times for credit.

This course offers an opportunity to integrate experiential and academic work within the context of a field setting. Students make their own arrangements to work in a psychology research lab; meet regularly with a faculty sponsor and research group to discuss their experiences; read materials which are relevant to the research topic and techniques being used; and create some form of written product that discusses the research and the student's participation in the research process.

PSYCH 331. Research Methods in Brain, Behavior, and Cognitive Science
Consent of instructor required. Admission by application. Completion of STATS 250 (350) or STATS 425 and PSYCH 230, 240, 335, or 345. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This course introduces students to selected research methods used in the field of biopsychology (brain and behavior and animal behavior) or cognitive science.

PSYCH 335. Introduction to Animal Behavior
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, 115, BIOLOGY 162, 163, 171, 172, 195 or ANTHRBIO 161. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 338 / ANTHRBIO 368. Primate Social Behavior I
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

This course describes and explains primate societies and is first in a sequence of two. The course investigates sex, aggression, cooperation, social development and group structure.

PSYCH 341. Advanced Laboratory in Cognitive Psychology
PSYCH 240 or 245 or 345; and STATS 250 or 425 or MATH 425. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

This course is designed to acquaint psychology concentrators with the methods applicable to the scientific study of behavior, with the primary focus on methods used in cognitive psychology. Students will learn the logic of experimentation, gain experience with technical writing, and learn to critically evaluate research findings.

PSYCH 344 / ELI 351 / LING 351. Second Language Acquisition
LING 111 or 210. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is an introductory course in Second Language Acquisition (SLA). How adults learn, or fail to learn, a second language is a fascinating question. It involves much of what we know about human cognition, psychology, and language. How best to help learners acquire a second language is an equally important educational issue. In addition to all of the factors which play a role in child language acquisition, SLA also involves effects of variation in second language educational, social and usage environments, ages of acquisition, levels of learner cognitive and brain development, motivation, and language transfer.

PSYCH 345. Introduction to Human Neuropsychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, 115, or 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PSYCH 634.

PSYCH 346. Learning and Memory
PSYCH 240 or 345. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

A survey of the general principles of learning and memory and an introduction to learning theory.

PSYCH 347. Perception
PSYCH 230, 240 or 345. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an analysis of basic perceptual processes and theories. It aims to integrate neuroscientific, psychophysical and cognitive approaches to the problems of perception.

PSYCH 349 / LING 347. Talking Minds
At least one of: LING 111 or 210, or PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Human minds are unique in their capacity for language, yet other animals and computers also have communication systems. This course introduces students to theoretical issues in the cognitive processes of language and memory, conversation, and compare "primitive language" in young humans, non-human animals, and computers.

PSYCH 351. Advanced Laboratory in Developmental Psychology
STATS 250 or 425 or MATH 425; and PSYCH 250. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement. F, W, Sp.

This course provides students with training in the skills necessary for designing, conducting, evaluating, and communicating research on human development. The class is a combination of lecture, discussion of research issues and methodology, activity-based laboratory sessions, and the implementation of individual, group, and class research projects.

PSYCH 352 / LING 352. Development of Language and Thought
PSYCH 250. (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

A consideration of the main theoretical positions on the relationships between language and thought with an emphasis on the universal processes underlying language acquisition, environmental influences.

PSYCH 353. Social Development
PSYCH 250. (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines social and personality development from childhood through adolescence. Research findings describing several aspects of socialization, gender role development, attachment, and academic achievement will be discussed. Key theories explaining paths and outcomes and the forces that help shape and socialize children and adolescents, including the family, peers, schools, and the media will be examined.

PSYCH 355. Cognitive Development
PSYCH 250. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The development of intellectual and cognitive processes from infancy to maturity. Emphasis on contemporary theories and experimental research related to memory, language, conceptual understanding, and information processing strategies.

PSYCH 356. Educational Psychology
PSYCH 250. (4). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides a survey of major issues in educational psychology including theoretical, empirical, and practical perspectives. This course is appropriate for students who may work in fields related to education or for students who want to consider graduate study or research in education. The course provides a scholarly foundation for such careers as well as knowledge of future parents and informed citizens. Material emphasizes psychological approaches to teaching, learning, motivation, and assessment that are grounded in theory and research.

PSYCH 359. Psychology of Aging
PSYCH 250. (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

The normal and abnormal changes in behavior that occur between early maturity and late maturity, with special emphasis on changes in sensations and perception, intelligence, learning, and personality, as well as other areas of a more social psychological nature such as social roles and the impact of environmental change on older people.

PSYCH 361. Advanced Laboratory in Organizational Psychology
STATS 250(350) or 425/MATH 425 and one of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 260. (4). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement. F, W, Sp.

This is a project-oriented advanced laboratory in organizational psychology. The lab is designed: to provide students with opportunities to gain practical organizational research experience; to introduce students to selected general research methods in organizational psychology (e.g., field experiments, experimental simulations, survey research); and to provide practical knowledge about research design, analysis, and scientific writing.

PSYCH 371. Advanced Laboratory in Psychopathology
STATS 250 or 425 or MATH 425; and one of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 270. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is designed to provide students with training in the skills necessary for designing, conducting, evaluating, and communicating about research on psychopathology. Lectures will cover research design, current studies in clinical psychology, methods of assessing psychiatric symptoms and disorders, and research tools for evaluating psychotherapy outcomes. Lab sessions will encourage students to pursue an area of interest while learning how to design assessments, collect and analyze data, and report findings in a written report that meets APA guidelines.

PSYCH 381 / SOC 472. Advanced Laboratory in Social Psychology
STATS 250(350) or 425 or MATH 425; and one of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 280. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement. F, W, Su.

This course provides a hands-on exploration of social psychological research methods. Students are introduced to different research methods and concepts, learn to collect and analyze survey data, and conduct an original, experimental research project. In this project (topic varies), students design the study, collect and analyze the data, and write a written APA style report.

PSYCH 383 / SOC 383. Introduction to Survey Research I
PSYCH 280. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies a Psychology research-based laboratory requirement.

PSYCH 384 / ENVIRON 360. Behavior and Environment
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Course deals with two central themes: First, environmental problems are people problems, requiring an understanding of how people think, what they care about, and the conditions under which they behave most reasonably. Second, human behavior makes the most sense when studied in the context of the environment, both present and evolutionary. This course builds a model of human nature, based upon research in the field of environmental psychology.

PSYCH 385 / ENVIRON 361. The Psychology of Environmental Stewardship
(3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with how to reframe and promote a future with a restrained and austere existence. To meet this challenge, behavior-change tools and strategies are developed. Emphasis is on informational and motivational means of changing behavior in a durable manner.

PSYCH 393. Political Psychology
Introductory Psychology. A prior course or interest in History or Political Science is useful, though not required. (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

Survey of how psychological factors affect political behavior, and vice versa: leadership, war and peace, political socialization, ideology, political cognition, mass media, political commitment and voting, rebellion, terrorism, and negotiation-mediation.

PSYCH 394 / WOMENSTD 394. Sex, Sexuality, and Public Policy
PSYCH 111 or any WOMENSTD course. (3). (SS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines a series of U.S. policies that aim to shape the sexual lives of young people and adults. We examine policies concerning how we learn about sex, engage in sex, and form families. Topics include HPV vaccines, sex education, school-based bullying, same-sex marriage, contraception, and abortion.

PSYCH 400. Special Problems in Psychology as a Natural Science
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115; and 230, or 240. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

A study of selected problems in psychology. Topics vary from term to term; consult the time schedule for specific information about topics and credit.

PSYCH 401. Special Problems in Psychology as a Social Science
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (1 - 4). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term. Only 6 credits of PSYCH 400, 401, 402 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in Psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation.

This course examines selected problems in psychology. Consult the schedule of classes for specific topics and credits each term.

PSYCH 402. Special Problems in Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290. (2 - 4). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. Only 6 credits of PSYCH 400, 401, 402 combined may be counted toward a concentration plan in Psychology, and a maximum of 12 credits may be counted toward graduation.

PSYCH 404. Field Practicum
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290, and permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. Credit is granted for a combined total of fifteen credits elected from Experiential lab courses. May be used as an experiential lab in the Psychology major but not the major in Biopsychology, Cognition, and Neuroscience; credits may not be used toward either major. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Students may make arrangements to work in an agency where psychological principles may be observed and utilized. This is often an internship or volunteer opportunity. The faculty member and the student develop an academic component (e.g. paper, reading list) that will pertain to the student's placement. The faculty member and the student have regular contact to monitor progress. It is recommended that the student have already completed at least one psychology breadth course.

PSYCH 405. Field Practicum in a University Setting
Consent of instructor required. One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290, and permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 4 credits. Credit is granted for a combined total of fifteen credits elected from Experiential lab courses. May be used as an experiential lab in the Psychology major but not the major in Biopsychology, Cognition, and Neuroscience; credits may not be used toward either major. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Students may make arrangements to work in university settings where psychological principles may be observed and utilized.

PSYCH 413. A History of Modern Psychology
Psych or BBCS or Neuroscience concentrator. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course reviews the philosophical underpinnings and precursors of scientific and academic study of psychology, the development of cognitive psychology and psychological neuroscience, as well as the history of applied, social and clinical areas of psychology. Finally, the course covers the history of the University of Michigan Psychology Department.

PSYCH 418 / RELIGION 448. Psychology and Spiritual Development
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115, and permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores the contributions of transpersonal psychology in examining direct spiritual experience, the division to work within a specific spiritual discipline, and the diversity of lives led in search of life's highest goals.

PSYCH 420. Faculty Directed Advanced Tutorial Reading for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. Proposal required. Approval of the instructor and Psychology Committee on undergraduate Studies and PSYCH 230, 240, 335, or 345. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to further explore a topic of interest in psychology as a natural science under the direction of a member of the faculty. The course requires a final paper, a copy of which must be given to the undergraduate office. Students are provided with the proper section number by the Psychology undergraduate office after petition has been approved. Students are responsible for properly registering for this course.

PSYCH 421. Faculty Directed Advanced Tutorial Reading for Psychology as a Social Science
Consent of instructor required. Proposal required. Approval of the instructor and Psychology Committee on Undergraduate Studies and one of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to further explore a topic of interest in psychology as a social science under the direction of a member of the faculty.

PSYCH 422. Faculty Directed Advanced Research for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. Proposal required. Approval of the instructor and Psychology Committee on undergraduate Studies. STATS 350 or 425 and one of the following: PSYCH 302, 331, 341, or 342. (1 - 4). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Research-based courses may be counted towards the Psychology concentration.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research of their own design under the direction of a member of the faculty. The work of the course must include the collection and analysis of data and a written report, a copy of which must be given to the undergraduate office. Students are provided with the proper section number by the Psychology undergraduate office after petition has been approved. Students are responsible for being properly registered for this course.

PSYCH 423. Faculty Directed Advanced Research for Psychology as a Social Science
Consent of instructor required. Proposal required. Approval of the instructor and Psychology Committee on Undergraduate Studies. STATS 350 or 425 and one of the following: PSYCH 302, 303, 331, 341, 342, 351, 361, 371, 381, 383, or 391. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A total of six credits of Psychology letter-graded Research-based courses may be counted towards the Psychology concentration.

Arrangements may be made for adequately prepared students to undertake individual research of their own design under the direction of a member of the faculty.

PSYCH 424. Senior Honors Research I for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. Acceptance into the Psychology Honors Program, STATS 350 or 425, and prior research experience. (2 - 4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The primary focus in Senior Honors I is the development of a research plan in collaboration with the Honors Advisor and the writing of an extensive literature review on the honors topic, culminating in an acceptable research proposal.

PSYCH 426. Senior Honors Research II for Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of instructor required. Permission of the Psychology Honors Program Director, PSYCH 424 and good standing in the Psychology Honors Program. (2 - 4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The primary focus in Senior Honors is the implementation of a honors research design culminating in your final, acceptable honors thesis.

PSYCH 428. Senior Thesis: Research in Psychology as a Natural Science
Consent of department required. Senior standing. STATS 350 and prior research experience. (2 - 4). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PSYCH 424, 425, 426, or 427.

The primary focus in this course is the development of a research plan in collaboration with the faculty advisor. Students are expected to write an extensive literature review on the research topics, culminating in a final, acceptable senior thesis.

PSYCH 429. Senior Thesis: Research in Psychology as a Social Science
Consent of department required. Senior standing. STATS 350 and prior research experience. (2 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in PSYCH 424, 425, 426, or 427.

The primary focus in this course is the development of a research plan in collaboration with the faculty advisor. Students are expected to write an extensive literature review on the research topics, culminating in a final, acceptable senior thesis.

PSYCH 430 / WOMENSTD 452. Sexuality and Science
Any WOMENSTD course or PSYCH 111. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This interdisciplinary course focuses on sexuality and science from two perspectives. We discuss current biological and neuroscientific research about sexuality, as well as feminist scholarship on these topics and critical responses to this research. Topics cover the intersections between biology, sexuality, and feminist/critical scholarship about this research.

PSYCH 431. The Neuroscience of Attention and Attentional Disorders
PSYCH 230. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces the cognitive constructs of attention and the neurobiological systems and molecular mechanisms that control attentional functions and are responsible for the decline of such processes in neuropsychiatric and neuro-degenerative disorders.

PSYCH 433. Biopsychology of Motivation
PSYCH 230, 240, or 345. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 434. Biopsychology of Learning and Memory
PSYCH 230 or 240. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course surveys molecular, synaptic, and neural mechanisms of learning and memory. Topics will span many levels of biological organization from genes to behavior. The course will present an integrative picture of the organization and function of learning/memory systems in simple and complex nervous systems.

PSYCH 435. Biological Rhythms and Behavior
One of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 335, or 345. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines circadian and seasonal behavior and psychology from a variety of viewpoints; adaptive importance, functional properties, and neural/hormonal mechanisms that are involved in generating cycles. We explore the role of rhythms in physiology, behavior, and disorders such as jet lag and insomnia.

PSYCH 436. Drugs of Abuse, Brain and Behavior
PSYCH 230. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (BIOLOGY 162 or 163 or 172 or 195) and a CHEM course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Basic introduction to the neuro-psychological of drug abuse and addiction.

PSYCH 437. Current Topics in Biopsychology
PSYCH 230, 240, or 345. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May be elected twice for credit.

This course will, in a seminar setting, present psychology topics of special interest to students and faculty. Topics will vary according to the current research trends within this discipline of Psychology. Students will be responsible for specific readings and will write a final paper on a topic agreed upon by student and faculty.

PSYCH 438. Hormones and Behavior
PSYCH 230 or 240. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will discuss hormonal influences on animal behavior. The relations between hormones, brain and behavior will be discussed in a variety of species. Behaviors to be discussed include hormonal influences on sexual behavior, courtship behavior, parental behavior, aggression, learning and memory, thirst, feeding, cognitive functions, and stress responses.

PSYCH 442. Perception, Science, and Reality
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F, W, Su.

At its most general level, human perception concerns questions of how and why we use sensory information to conceive of and experience immediate reality. This course focuses on basic perceptual phenomena and theories.

PSYCH 445 / LING 447. Psychology of Language
PSYCH 240. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 447. Current Topics in Cognition and Cognitive Neuroscience
PSYCH 230, 240, or 345. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May be elected twice for credit.

This course will, in a seminar setting, present psychology topics of special interest to students and faculty. Topics will vary according to the current research trends within this discipline of Psychology. Students will be responsible for specific readings and will write a final paper on a topic agreed upon by student and faculty.

PSYCH 448. Mathematical Psychology
Sophomore standing or above and a minimum of two courses offered by either MATH (except MATH 105, 110, 127, and 128) or STATS (200 level and above). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 449. Decision Processes
One of STATS 250, or STATS 425 or MATH 425. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Primary goals in this course are to help the student do two things: (a) achieve an understanding of how people--individually and collectively--actually solve decision problems; and (b) develop an understanding of how people-- including the student him- or herself--could decide better than they would be inclined to decide naturally.

PSYCH 456. Human Infancy
PSYCH 250. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 457. Current Topics in Developmental Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 250. (3). May be elected twice for credit.

This course will, in a seminar setting, present psychology topics of special interest to students and faculty. Topics will vary according to the current research trends within this discipline of Psychology.

PSYCH 458. Psychology of Adolescence
PSYCH 250. (3; 2 - 3 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduces students to specific effects on human experiences and behavior of adolescence, a period of rapid biological, psychological, and social change; principles of developmental psychology, social psychology, and sociology; and the application of scientific inquiry to a domain of human development.

PSYCH 467. Current Topics in Organizational Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 260. (3). May be elected twice for credit.

This course will, in a seminar setting, present psychology topics of special interest to students and faculty. Topics will vary according to the current research trends within this discipline of Psychology. Students will be responsible for specific readings and will write a final paper on a topic agreed upon by student and faculty.

PSYCH 474. Introduction to Behavior Therapy
PSYCH 270. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PSYCH 476. Positive Psychology
Junior or Senior standing and one of the following: PSYCH 230, 240, 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar concerns itself with the basics of positive psychology. Positive psychology calls for as much focus on strength as on weakness, as much interest in building the best things in life as in repairing the worst, and as much attention to fulfilling the lives of healthy people as to healing the wounds of the distressed.

PSYCH 477. Current Topics in Clinical Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 270. (3). May be elected twice for credit.

This course will, in a seminar setting, present psychology topics of special interest to students and faculty. Topics will vary according to the current research trends within this discipline of Psychology.

PSYCH 478. Clinical Psychology
PSYCH 111 or 112 or 114 or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 270. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The goal of this course is to present a comprehensive overview of academic and clinical activities in the field of clinical psychology. Topics that will be addressed include the history of this profession, issues in the diagnosis of disorders, assessment of intellectual and personality functioning, and various theoretical approaches to therapeutic interventions.

PSYCH 487. Current Topics in Social Psychology
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PSYCH 280. (3). May be elected four times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course will, in a seminar setting, present psychology topics of special interest to students and faculty. Topics will vary according to the current research trends within this discipline of Psychology.

PSYCH 488 / SOC 465 / WOMENSTD 465. Sociological Analysis of Deviance
One introductory course in sociology. (4; 3 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a sociological examination of the social construction of deviant categories and their consequences, using analysis of conventional values and modes of social control. Students are expected to develop a critical perspective and facilitate reflective thought about deviance.

PSYCH 493. Psychological Perspectives on Culture and Ethnicity
One of the following: PSYCH 111, 112, 114, or 115 and one of: PSYCH 250, 260, 270, 280, or 290. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will examine a wide range of basic social/personality processes (e.g., social cognition, emotion, self-concept, personality traits) from a cultural perspective by drawing on a wide range of cultural and cross-cultural studies. The course will also deal with other more general topics of relevance to the study of individuals in their cultural contexts (e.g., cross-cultural research methods, acculturation, biculturalism, ethnic identity).

PSYCH 494 / WOMENSTD 494. Adolescent Sexuality
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course addresses a wide range of issues that affect young people and their sexual development. We look at early lessons regarding sexuality as the basis for individuals' attitudes regarding sex and potential sexual/relational partners throughout their lifetime.

PSYCH 530. Advanced Topics in Comparative and Evolutionary Psychology
PSYCH 335, 338/438. (3). (BS). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

Specialized topics related to the behavior of various species are examined and contrasted in an evolutionary and comparative context.

PSYCH 531. Advanced Topics in Biopsychology
PSYCH 230. (3). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course will, in a lecture setting, present topics of special interest to students and faculty. Current faculty research is addressed. Topics will vary according to the specific faculty research interest.

PSYCH 532 / ANATOMY 541 / PHYSIOL 541. Mammalian Reproductive Endocrinology
MCDB 310 or 311, or BIOLCHEM 415. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

A study of the physiological and behavior actions for reproductive hormones, which are responsible for the regulation of the reproductive systems and behavior. Topics include: The properties and mechanisms of action of pituitary gonadotropin and sex steroid hormones, the anatomy and endocrine regulation of the reproductive tracts (reproductive & maternal behavior), mechanisms of fertilization, implantation and development, the (neuro) endocrinology of mating and maternal behavior, pregnancy, and contraception.

PSYCH 533 / NEUROSCI 520. Sleep: Neurobiology, Medicine, and Society
Senior and above. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) BIOLOGY 222, MCDB 422, or PSYCH 230; and permission of instructor. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The objective of this course is to give students the most up-to-date information on the biological, personal, and societal relevance of sleep. Personal relevance is emphasized by the fact that the single best predictor of daytime performance is the quality of the previous night's sleep. The brain actively generates sleep, and the first third of the course will overview the neurobiological basis of sleep cycle control. Sleep will be used as a vehicle for teaching basic neuroanatomical and neuropharmacological principles. This information will provide a cellular-level understanding of how sleep deprivation, jet lag, and substances such as alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine alter sleep and wakefulness. It is now clear that sleep significantly alters physiology. The second third of the class will cover sleep-dependent changes in physiology and sleep disorders medicine. Particular emphasis will be place on disorders of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, and sleep-dependent changes in autonomic control. Chronic sleep deprivation impairs immune function and promotes obesity. Deaths due to all causes are most frequent between 4 and 6 a.m., and the second portion of the class will highlight the relevance of sleep for preventive medicine. The societal relevance of the sleep will be considered in the final portion of the class. In an increasingly complex and technologically oriented society, operator-error by one individual can have a disastrous negative impact on the public health and safety. Fatigue-related performance errors contributed to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power plant failures and to the Exxon Valdez Alaskan oil spill. The personal relevance of fatigue-related performance errors will be considered by reviewing the recent data showing that in the U.S. more people die from medical mistakes each year than from highway accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS. Fulfillment of course objectives will be quantified by pre- versus post-class informational self-evaluation. In-class arousal levels will be facilitated by seminar participation.

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