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Courses in LSA Earth & Environmental Sciences

Earth and Environmental Sciences (EARTH)

EARTH 401 / CLIMATE 401. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
CLIMATE 323, SPACE 323, or EARTH 323 (or GEOSCI 323); MATH 215 and 216 and PHYSICS 240. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Dynamics of the oceans and atmosphere. Equations of motion in spherical coordinates, beta-plane approximation, wave properties in the oceans and atmosphere.

EARTH 408 / ENVIRON 403. Introduction to GIS in the Earth Sciences
An introductory geology or environmental sciences course (EARTH 116, 119, 120, 201, 202, 219 or 284) and one math course or a statistics course (MATH 115, 116, 120, 121, 156, 175, 176, 185, 186, 295, 296, STATS 150, 180, 250, 280). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Although previous GIS experience is not required, students are expected to be familiar with desktop and mobile computing, and to be comfortable with at least one quantitative software program (Matlab, Excel, Mathematica, or R, as examples). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an understanding of Geographic Information Systems and their application in the earth sciences. Through lectures and lab exercises students are exposed to GIS theory, applications and software.

EARTH 409 / CLIMATE 410. Earth System Modeling
CLIMATE 320, CLIMATE 321, SPACE 320, SPACE 321. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to Earth System Modeling; Discussion of energy balance models, carbon cycle models, and atmospheric chemistry models with multiple time scales; Methods for numerical solution and practice building and analyzing results from models.

EARTH 411 / CLIMATE 411. Cloud and Precipitation Processes
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, MATH 216. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The special nature of water substance; nucleation of phase changes in the free atmosphere; the structure and content of coulds; the development of physical characteristics of precipitation; and the dynamics of rain systems.

EARTH 413. Geomicrobiology: How Microorganisms Shape Earth and Environment
[EARTH/ENVIRON 131 or CHEM 130] AND [EARTH 313 and EARTH 325] or graduate standing or permission of instructor. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines how and why microorganisms (primarily bacteria and archaea) drive geochemical processes. Emphasis is placed on the integration of cellular physiology/metabolism with cycling and transformation of elements. Topics include biomineralization, mineral dissolution and weathering, and critical evaluation of molecular biogeochemical approaches.

EARTH 414 / CLIMATE 414. Weather Systems
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, CLIMATE 401 or CLIMATE 551. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the basic characteristics, thermodynamics, and dynamics of atmospheric weather systems on Earth and other planets. The students are exposed to observations of weather systems while reviewing non-dimensional analysis, dynamics and thermodynamics. Weather systems on earth are compared to that of other planets and analytical tools are used to gain insights into their basic physics.

EARTH 417. Geology of the Great Lakes
An introductory course in Geology (EARTH 116, 119, 120 or 205/206/118), BIOLOGY 171 or 172, or Oceanography (EARTH 222/223), OR permission of instructor. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Geologic history of the late-glacial and post-glacial Great Lakes of North America, with emphasis on evaluation of evidence. Related topics such as lake circulation, bedrock setting, and physical environment of sedimentation, and paleoclimate records are examined.

EARTH 418. Paleontology
An introductory course in Geology (EARTH 116, 119, 120 or 205/206/118) or BIOLOGY 171 or 172. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Introduction to the principles, methods of analysis and major controversies within paleontology; familiarization with the fossil record and its use in problems involving evolutionary biology, paleoecology, and general earth history.

EARTH 419. Paleontology Laboratory
Prior or concurrent enrollment in EARTH (GEOSCI) 418. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

This laboratory course involves observation, analysis and interpretation of fossil material. Its goal is to give students experience dealing with paleontological problems and to develop a familiarity with the morphology, systematics, ecology, and evolutionary history of important groups of fossil organisms.

EARTH 421 / CLIMATE 421 / ENVIRON 426. Introduction of Physical Oceanography
MATH 115 and 116, and an introductory science course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines the fundamentals of physical oceanography; the physical properties of the ocean and water masses; circulation of the atmosphere; wind-driven and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation; tides; surface and internal waves; eddies; and mixing.

EARTH 422. Principles of Geochemistry
[EARTH 305, 315, 412] and [EARTH 131 or CHEM 125/126/130]. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

This course explores how geochemical methods can unravel and provide insight into the origin and chemical evolution of the earth and its parts (core, mantle, crustal rocks). Topics covered include: stable isotope and trace element analysis; radioactive age dating; hydrothermal solutions, and metamorphic and igneous systems.

EARTH 423 / CLIMATE 422. Boundary Layer Meteorology
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350 or equivalent. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, which plays an important role in the exchange of energy, mass and momentum between land and atmosphere. Topics include applications of governing atmospheric equations, atmospheric turbulence, turbulent kinetic energy, the surface energy balance, and the collection and analysis of field flux tower data.

EARTH 429. Computational Mineralogy
(4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course will introduce molecular simulation techniques to simulate the atomic and electronic structure of bulk minerals and mineral surfaces. Fundamental properties such as structure, thermodynamics, electronic and magnetic behavior, reactivity and dynamic processes will be studied. These are important in environmental mineralogy, petrology, and in environmental and technical applications.

EARTH 431 / ENVIRON 431. Terrestrial Biomes Past, Present and Future
BIOLOGY 171, or one of EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119, 120, or 205/206; or Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

As the major organizing feature of terrestrial ecosystems, biomes are dependent on the organisms, ecosystems, and climate of the planet. This course surveys important biological innovations, examples of past ecosystems from the fossil record, the relevance of climate to terrestrial environments, and the changing world of today and tomorrow.

EARTH 432. Plant Paleobiology
BIOLOGY 171 or GEOSCI 116, or 119, or 120, or 205/206, or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Plants have played important roles in the terrestrial biosphere for over 500 million years. This course explores the evolution and ecology of plants through this time, including the transition to land, early plant life, origin of major groups and plant structures, and the impact plants have on shaping our planet.

EARTH 433. Field Studies in Economic Geology
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

EARTH 435. Field Studies in Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

EARTH 436. Field Studies in Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Sedimentology
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

EARTH 437. Evolution of Vertebrates
EARTH (GEOSCI) 125 or BIOLOGY 162 or 171 or 172. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Lectures and laboratory exercises on the anatomy, ecology, and phylogeny of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in the fossil record, with emphasis on adaptation and evolution.

EARTH 440. Geological Field Methods
EARTH 305 and 351. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (5). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies the Earth and Environmental Sciences concentration Field Experience requirement. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail. Rackham credit requires additional work.

In this broad, in-depth field course, students are trained to recognize distinct lithological units and their 3-D relationships. Mapping projects include deformed and faulted sedimentary, regional metamorphic, and igneous complexes. Digital mapping techniques and modern geophysical tools supplement traditional field observations.

EARTH 441. Field Geology Project
Consent of department required. Completion of EARTH (GEOSCI) 440 immediately prior. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course builds on skills developed in GEOSCI 440 including geologic mapping in complexly deformed terranes, integration and interpretation of regional geologic relationships, and topics in applied field geophysics. It must be taken immediately following GEOSCI 440 in the same summer at Camp Davis, Jackson, Wyoming.

EARTH 442 / ENVIRON 442. Earth Surface Processes and Soils
MATH 115 and (EARTH 131 or CHEM 130). (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Study of processes resulting in landforms on the Earth's solid surface and the formation of soils on these landforms. Emphasis includes present-day processes as well as the evolution of landforms over geologic time. Several required field trips will examine landforms and processes in southern Michigan.

EARTH 444. Analytical Paleobiology
Completion of an introductory paleontology course such as EARTH 418, or evolutionary biology such as EEB 390. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course emphasizes theory, quantitative methods, and hypothesis testing as applied to paleobiological questions. Topics include phylogenetic inference, morphometrics, evolutionary rates, biomechanics, and functional morphology. Laboratories provide exposure to introductory programming and relevant software. The course is offered at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students.

EARTH 446 / ENVIRON 446. Paleoclimatology
MATH 115 and 116 and EARTH 305, or permission of instructor. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines climate change throughout Earth's history. Topics include the following: description of Earth's climate history, physics of the Earth's climate, methods of reconstructing past climate and climate forcings, and biological causes and consequences of climate change.

EARTH 449. Marine Geology
EARTH (GEOSCI) 222/223 or introductory physical geology (EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 117, 120 or 205/206/118). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 451. Introduction to Structure and Tectonics
Permission of Instructor. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 351.

Interpretation of geological structures in the Earth's crust, and introduction to global plate tectonics. This course is aimed at all who have an interest in the Earth's physical properties beyond the introductory level, which may include graduate students.

EARTH 454 / CLIMATE 440. Meteorological Analysis Laboratory
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, CLIMATE 401. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an introduction into the analysis of both surface-based and remotely-sensed meteorological data. The development and application of operational numerical forecast models will be discussed. Techniques for the prediction of both synoptic and mesoscale meteorological phenomena will also be presented.

EARTH 455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials
One term of Chemistry and Physics. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

EARTH 457 / CLIMATE 451 / ENSCEN 451. Atmospheric Dynamics I
CLIMATE 401 or MATH 450. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Quasi-geotropic energetics; fronts; the mean circulation; planetary and equatorial waves; overview of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere; wave-mean flow interaction; spectral methods; and tropical meteorology.

EARTH 460 / ENVIRON 460. Paleobiology and Paleoenvironments
At least two courses from following list: EARTH 305, EARTH 313, EARTH 418. (5). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course will help students to understand Earth's biological and environmental evolution over geologic time. Through field-based case studies, students will learn an array of observational and analytical skills drawing from, but not limited to, sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleobotany, paleozoology, paleoclimate, paleoecology.

EARTH 465 / CHEM 467 / CLIMATE 467 / ENSCEN 467 / ENVIRON 467. Biogeochemical Cycles
MATH 116, CHEM 210, and PHYSICS 240 (or 260). (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F, W.

The biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur; the atmosphere and oceans as reservoirs and reaction media; the fate of natural and man-made sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds; the interactions among the major biogeochemical cycles and resultant global change; greenhouse gases, acid rain and ozone depletion.

EARTH 467. Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis
EARTH 305 and an introductory geoscience course [one of: EARTH 116 or ENVIRON 116; or EARTH 119 and 118, or ENVIRON 119 and 118; or EARTH 120 or ENVIRON 120 or EARTH 201 or GEOG 201 or ENVIRON 209; or EARTH 205 and 206 (or ENVIRON 206) and 207]; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) EARTH 310, and 351. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

This course focuses on continental and marine depositional environments and on sedimentary basin filling processes, including an overview of differences between various tectonic settings. Case studies will be drawn from literature examples and from real data.

EARTH 468. Data Analysis, Inference, and Estimation
MATH 115 or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Knowledge of, or willingness to learn, a programming language (e.g., Matlab, Mathematica). (3). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to methods for the statistical description of data and their uncertainties, and the inference and estimation of indirect information. Emphasis is placed on conceptual understanding and practical application. Topics include error propagation, cluster analysis, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, least squares regression, robust regression, and model selection.

EARTH 474 / CLIMATE 474. Ice Sheets, Glaciers and Climate Change
MATH 115 and 116. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

They dynamics and mass balance of ice sheets and glaciers introduced along with mathematical theories describing how ice sheets and glaciers flow and current methods of observation.

EARTH 475 / CLIMATE 475 / ENSCEN 475. Earth System Interactions
Senior standing in science or engineering. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Students will work on open-ended research problems with mathematical models from Earth System Science. The models may include, for example, surface characteristics, hydrology, solar-land-ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and space-based observations. Numerical experiments will promote further understanding and interpretation of earth system interactions, team building, and scientific communication.

EARTH 477 / ENVIRON 479. Hydrogeology
MATH 116; and High school knowledge of PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, and EARTH (GEOSCI) or equivalent. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to physical hydrogeology with particular emphasis on processes and direct applications to geological settings and problem solving. The hydrologic cycle, physical rock framework, and properties of aquifer systems are described and quantified. Groundwater flow and mass transport equations are covered, as well as pump test design and analysis. Natural tracers and groundwater dating are discussed.

EARTH 478. Geochemistry of Natural Waters
EARTH 131 or CHEM 130. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) EARTH 325. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Chemical compositions of natural waters, emphasizing both chemical and biogeochemical processes operating near Earth's surface; equilibrium vs. kinetic controls on chemical weathering; solute sources and mass balances in watersheds, groundwater, and river/ocean mixing zones. Hands-on field and lab experience provides training in methods of applied geochemistry.

EARTH 480. Isotopes in Earth and Environmental Sciences
EARTH 412, 415, 478, 479, 422, or another geochemistry course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course covers theory, measurement and application of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. It begins with background on the origin of isotopes, isotope fractionation, radioactive decay, and mass spectrometry. This is followed by applications to a wide range of research topics in isotope geochemistry.

EARTH 483. Geophysics: Seismology
Prior or concurrent election of MATH 215 and PHYSICS 240 (or 260). (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 484. Environmental Geophysics
Prior or concurrent election of MATH 115 and EARTH 314. Basic knowledge of function-oriented programing (i.e., Matlab or Python). This includes being able to open and read data files and know basic loop functions. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course is intended primarily for advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students in STEM disciplines. This multidisciplinary course covers a range of non-invasive, near-surface geophysical methods for environmental investigations, land management, and hazard assessment.

EARTH 485. Telling Time: Geochronology and the Story of Earth
An intro geology class (EARTH 116 or EARTH 119 or EARTH 120) and EARTH 315; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Students synthesize geologic concepts to gain an applied understanding of geochronology. Each week, the class focuses on important events in Earth's history -from planetary accretion, to mass extinctions, to historical environmental changes- as vehicles to understand how geochronology is used to address geological problems.

EARTH 494. Experiential Learning in the Earth Sciences
Consent of instructor required. Junior or senior standing; and one of the following: EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119 and 118, 120, 201, 205/206/207, 222 and 223, 284 or ENVIRON 116, 119 and 118, 120, 209, 232 and 233, 284 or GEOG 201. (1 - 4). (BS). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration. Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Students work with a faculty advisor on an off-campus project or internship relevant to their field of study.

EARTH 495. Methods in Research for Natural Sciences
Consent of department required. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course covers the approaches to conducting research in the natural sciences, including the tools and methods of research; the processes for performing research; the mechanisms for communicating research results; and the responsible conduct of research. Meets the NSF/NIH requirements for the responsible conduct of research.

EARTH 496. Special Topics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences
(1 - 5). (BS). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Rackham credit requires additional work.

A seminar on topics in Geological Sciences. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 497. William T. Smith Lecture Seminar
Two required Geological Sciences concentration core courses. (1). May be elected twice for credit. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Focuses on current earth science research presented in the Dept Geological Sciences Department's W.T. Smith Lecture Series. Students attend a group seminar and the W.T. Smith Lecture each week and read a paper by the weeks' speaker. The seminar group also critically evaluates the substance and style of each presentation.

EARTH 498. Research or Special Work
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration.

Geological Sciences independent study, research, or special work.

EARTH 499. Research or Special Work
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

Geological Sciences independent study, research, or special work.

EARTH 500. Introduction to Linux Programming
(2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Computational methods in the natural sciences and engineering have become increasingly important for graduate students. This course provides an introduction to Linux programming, with a focus on programming in the shell and with Fortran and C++. The course is hands-on with the grade determined by computational problem sets.

EARTH 504. Sources and Cycling of Inorganic Nutrients and Pollutants
Graduate standing. (3 - 4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will explore the chemical, physical, and biological processes that result in the release, transport, and fate of inorganic nutrients and pollutants in the environment.

EARTH 515. Tectonics of Oceans and Continents
EARTH (GEOSCI) 351. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 517. Tectonics and Earth Surface Processes
MATH 215 or above. Some MATLAB and GIS experience. May not be repeated for credit.

A course in plate tectonics and surface processes intended for graduate students in geology or related environmental and engineering fields. Key course concepts include the generation of topography and its evolution on million year to decadal timescales due to erosion.

EARTH 520. Changing Ocean
Consent of instructor required. May not be repeated for credit.

The ocean is a critical component of Earth's climate system. Current trends highlight impacts and feedbacks related to physical, biogeochemical, ecological, and climate system processes. This class will combine lecture, seminar, and discussion to explore how the ocean participates in and responds to climate change - past, present, and future.

EARTH 523. Microbial Community Omics
(2). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will focus on emerging "omics" approaches (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) to studying microorganisms and their interactions with various environments. It will cover both conceptual and analytical aspects of microbial genome science through lecture and laboratory exercises. Lab exercises will focus on utilization of high-performance computing to analyze real datasets.

EARTH 525. Tectonophysics
A basic knowledge of mathematics and physics is required; Permission of instructor. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 526. Earthquake Hazard and Fault Mechanics
Consent of instructor required. May not be repeated for credit.

The mechanical processes on faults cause the start, growth and arrest of earthquakes, which pose great hazards to societies worldwide. This course explores the fundamental mechanisms underlying earthquake phenomena and their relationship to fault mechanics, and how we can apply earthquake physics to estimate and predict the associated hazards.

EARTH 529 / ENSCEN 531 / NERS 531. Nuclear Waste Management
Senior standing. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

Based on the nuclear fuel cycle, this course will review the origin, composition, form and volumes of waste generated by commercial reactors and defense programs. The scientific and engineering basis for near-field and far-field containment in a geologic repository will be reviewed in the context of performance assessment methodologies.

EARTH 531. Seminar in Geologic Problems
Permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (BS). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Earth and Environmental Sciences grad level seminar. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 532. Seminar in Climate, Tectonics, and Surface Processes
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This seminar discusses the coupling and interactions between climate, tectonics, and Earth surface processes. This interdisciplinary seminar integrates concepts and readings from the fields of paleoclimate, neotectonics, tectonic geomorphology, lithosperic geodynamics, and process geomorphology. Emphasis is placed on learning how to critically analyze various methods, data sets, and arguments presented in the literature. Participants are expected to read and actively discuss current scientific papers.

EARTH 534. Seminar in Geophysics, Tectonics, or Structure
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

EARTH 535. Seminar in Mineralogy, Petrology, or Geochemistry
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

EARTH 536. Seminar in Stratigraphy, Paleontology, or Sedimentology
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

EARTH 537. Topics in Physical Oceanography
Graduate standing. Consent of instructor required. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (1). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

In this class we cover important papers in physical oceanography, both older "classic" papers as well as more recent papers. Each student will present at least one of the papers, and students are expected to read all the papers assigned.

EARTH 543. Seminar in Paleoclimatology
Consent of instructor required. May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

A seminar on topics in paleoclimatology. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 554. Thermodynamics and Kinetics
EARTH 422 or equivalent. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is for graduate students who need in-depth understanding of thermodynamics and kinetics. This course will be interdisciplinary, covering fundamental theories and applications in Earth and environmental sciences. The first half of the course will be on thermodynamics and the second half will be on kinetics.

EARTH 580. Advanced Isotope Geochemistry
May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides students with a basic set of fundamentals upon which they can build to become effective users, practitioners and innovators in isotope geochemistry. Students also learn the essential technical aspects of the science, including mass spectrometry, vacuum systems, valves and fittings, sample preparation, purification techniques, etc.

EARTH 581 / CEE 581. Aquatic Chemistry
(CHEM 130; C- or better, and Senior Standing) or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) CHEM 130 and senior or graduate standing. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Chemical principles applicable to the analysis of the chemical composition of natural waters and engineered water treatment systems; covers acid-base, precipitation-dissolution, complexation, and oxidation-reduction reactions; emphasis on graphical, analytical, and computer-speciation methods; presented in the context of contemporary environmental issues including water quality, climate change, and pollution prevention and abatement.

EARTH 582. Advanced Mineral Deposits
Graduate standing. Introductory economic geology and geochemistry. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 596. Topics in Earth and Environmental Sciences
May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course provides an in-depth investigation of various topics in Earth and environmental sciences. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 599. Independent Study
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 9). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 18 credits.

Special work.

EARTH 620 / MATSCIE 621 / NERS 621. Nuclear Waste Forms
NERS 531. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F (even years).

This interdisciplinary course will review the materials science of radioactive waste remediation and disposal strategies. The main focus will be on corrosion mechanisms, radiation effects, and the long-term durability of glasses and crystalline ceramics proposed for the immobilization and disposal of nuclear waste.

EARTH 709. Thesis Research-A.M., M.S.
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 929. Investigations in Geology and Mineralogy
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing. (1 - 6). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 990. Dissertation/Precandidate
Consent of instructor required. Election for dissertation work by doctoral student not yet admitted as a Candidate. Graduate standing. (1 - 8; 1 - 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

EARTH 995. Dissertation/Candidate
Graduate School authorization for admission as a doctoral Candidate. Consent of instructor required. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (8; 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".