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Courses in LSA History
History (HISTORY)
HISTORY 402. Problems in Roman History I
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 404. The Later Roman Empire
(3; 2 - 3 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 405 / CLCIV 476 / RELIGION 476. Pagans and Christians in the Roman World
(4; 3 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

The course, will trace the formation of Christian ideas and modes of conduct in the Roman empire, examine religion both as a form of cultural and political expression and as a method of establishing a variety of contacts with a supernatural world. We thus begin with an analysis of what, was meant by culture and politics, while also looking at different ways of constructing a supernatural world.

HISTORY 408. Byzantine Empire, 284-867
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

History of the Byzantine Empire from Constantine the Great to the end of the Amorian Dynasty. Political, cultural, and religious relations with the civilizations of Rome, the medieval West, the Slavs, and the Near East are stressed.

HISTORY 409. Byzantine Empire, 867-1453
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

History of the Byzantine Empire from Basil to the Conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks. Political, cultural and religious relations with Western Europe, the Slavs and the Near East will be stressed.

HISTORY 415 / ASIAN 415. Law and Society in Late Imperial and Modern China
Junior or senior standing. No prior knowledge of China or Chinese required. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

The Chinese legal order is one of the great legal traditions that has not only exercised a tremendous influence on other legal systems in East Asia for centuries, but still exerts a considerable influence in China today. In recent years, new research methods and improved access to archival materials have shed new light on many aspects of Chinese legal history. This course explores major topics in Chinese legal history through selected readings of secondary and primary sources, as well as through audiovisual materials and fiction.

HISTORY 416 / GERMAN 401. Nineteenth-Century German and European Intellectual History
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English.

Between the upheavals of the French Revolution and the First World War, the European nations witnessed an utter transformation of their world. The relations of person to the nation, to the state, to history, and the physical world were rethought from top to bottom. Our exploration of modern ideas will take us from rationalism to racism, and from utopian ideologies to the birth of psychoanalysis.

HISTORY 417 / GERMAN 402. Twentieth-Century German and European Thought
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English. German concentrators must be concurrently enrolled in GERMAN 404.

This course will present a survey of the principal European intellectual movements of the twentieth century. We shall examine the interplay of political and cultural movements, and pay consistent attention to the difficulty of self-definition of the intellectual within rapidly changing social and cultural contexts. Socialism, Liberalism, Fascism, Surrealism, Existentialism, Cultural Marxism, Structuralism, Feminism, and Post-structuralism.

HISTORY 419. Twentieth-Century Germany
(3). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in HISTORY 420.

This course offers a survey of German history from the turn of the twentieth century, the First World War, and the founding of Weimar Democracy to the rise of the Nazis, the Second World War, the postwar division of Germany and finally, to German reunification in 1990. It attends to analysis of both historical events and relevant historical debates.

HISTORY 421 / AAS 421 / LACS 421 / RELIGION 421. Religions of the African Diaspora
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Conceptualizes "diaspora" and introduces Brazilian Candomble, Cuban Santeria and Palo Monte, Haitian Vodou, Jamaican and globalized Rastafari, the ancestor religion of the Garifuna of Central America, and Afro-Indian practices in Trinidad. Studies of historical development as well as contemporary practice will be used.

HISTORY 423 / ASIAN 423. Topics in Premodern South Asian History
(3). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This topics course explores themes in premodern South Asian history, allowing a deeper engagement at a thematic level rather than chronological. Students are asked to examine premodern South Asian history through an analysis of both primary and secondary sources.

HISTORY 424 / ASIAN 424. Topics in Modern South Asian History
(3). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This topics course explores themes in modern South Asian history, allowing for a deeper engagement at a thematic level rather than chronological. Students are asked to examine modern South Asian history through an analysis of both primary and secondary sources.

HISTORY 427. Magic, Religion, and Science in Early Modern England
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

The course explores the changing relationships among the three most important systems of thought in early modern England: magic, religion, and science.

HISTORY 428 / AAPTIS 462. The Rise of Islam
Junior standing or permission of instructor. Taught in English. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The Near East and eastern Mediterranean world in late antiquity; Muhammad and the formation of Islam; the early Islamic empire at its heights.

HISTORY 429 / AAPTIS 495 / RELIGION 496 / WOMENSTD 471. Gender and Sexuality in Pre-Modern Islam
Students should preferably have had one course in Islamic Studies. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to Muslim understanding of gender and gender relations, first through a study of those sacred texts (Qur'an and Hadith) that came to define the ideal woman and man, as well as their roles and relationships. Then, gender participation in the political and cultural life of the Safavi, Ottoman and Mughal Courts shall be explored to view the interplay between theory and practice.

HISTORY 431. History of the Balkans Since 1878
(3; 2 in the half-term). (R&E). May not be repeated for credit. W.

The course treats the region now comprising Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece and Albania from roughly 1800 to the present. It stresses the various peoples' struggle from independence from Ottomans and Habsburgs, the development of nationalism, the crisis of 1875-78, Macedonia, the Balkan wars, WW I, creation of Yugoslavia, inter-war problems, WW II and resistance movements, Tito.

HISTORY 432. Medieval and Early Modern Russia
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

History of Russia from prehistoric origins to the beginning of the 18th century.

HISTORY 433. Russia Under the Tsars: From Peter the Great to the Revolutions of 1917
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

History of Imperial Russia, from the beginning of the 18th century to the Revolution, with emphasis on the problems of modernization, political institutions, economic development, and the revolutionary movement.

HISTORY 434. Russia in the 20th Century: War, Revolution, and Reform
(3). May not be repeated for credit. W.

History of the political, social, economic and intellectual forms of Bolshevism, as they developed in pre-revolutionary Russian society, and as they applied in domestic and foreign policies after 1917.

HISTORY 435 / JUDAIC 435 / RUSSIAN 435. Cultural History of Russian Jews through Literature and the Arts
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Course surveys major trends of cultural development of Jews in Russia from late 18th to early 21st centuries, focusing on literary and artistic creativity in Russian cultural context. Special attention is given to two major centers in Odessa and St. Petersburg treated as two different models of Jewish cultural life.

HISTORY 442 / AAPTIS 461. The First Millennium of the Islamic Near East
Junior standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English.

HISTORY 443 / AAPTIS 487. Modern Middle East History
(4). May not be repeated for credit.

Impact of the West on the Islamic Near East in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Emphasis is on the modernization of the Ottoman Empire and Republican Turkey and Egypt, the rise of the Arab and Zionist nationalisms and the subsequent Arab-Israeli dispute, and inter-Arab and international rivalries to the present.

HISTORY 445. Topics in History
(3). May be elected three times for credit.

This course is meant to examine an aspect, to be designated in the section title, of select topics in history not covered under a specific country or time period.

HISTORY 450 / ASIAN 450. Japan to 1700: Origin Myth to Shogun Dynasty
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course discusses the history of Japan from prehistoric times to the final, unified Samurai polity. Topics include the rise of the imperial family, changing gender relations, multi-belief system, economic developments, samurai's legal culture and violence.

HISTORY 451 / ASIAN 451. Japan's Modern Transformations
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An exploration of the transformation of Japan from a semi-feudal state to a world economic power, with emphasis on the diversity and conflict that has shaped Japan's modern history.

HISTORY 452 / SEAS 452. History of Late-Colonial Southeast Asia
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

This course focuses on late-colonialism in Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Siam/Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Burma. One of the primary themes is the historical conflict between the societies of the region and the global community of "developed" nations. After looking at a sensitive and well-informed variety of historical sources, we also explore the area's political, social, and intellectual history. We also address student's interests in particular regions.

HISTORY 453 / SEAS 453. History of Post-Colonial Southeast Asia, 1942-2000
(3; 2 - 3 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

This course focuses on the period of modernization since 1942 of Southeast Asia, including Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Siam/Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Burma. One of the primary themes is the historical conflict between the societies of the region and the global community of "developed" nations. After looking at a sensitive and well-informed variety of historical sources, we also explore the area's political, social, and intellectual history. We also address student's interests in particular regions.

HISTORY 455. The History of India to 1526
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course explores themes in South Asian history to 1526, ranging from the earliest known civilizations on the subcontinent (the Indus Valley civilization) to the coming of the Mughals. It examines issues such as state formation, society and polity, gender relations, and religious history. Students are asked to engage ancient and medieval South Asian history through an analysis of both primary and secondary sources.

HISTORY 461 / AMCULT 462. The American Revolution
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

An analysis of the causes, consequences and nature of the American Revolution.

HISTORY 463. Antebellum Society and the Civil War
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit. W.

This course focuses on antebellum society and the American Civil War from roughly 1830-1860(65). Issues such as antebellum political changes, social developments, economic trends, and the impact of the Civil War are considered.

HISTORY 466. Building American Empire: War, Politics, and Social Reform in the US, 1901-1950
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course provides an in-depth look at the period from 1901, when Theodore Roosevelt, a bold proponent of the United States taking its place among the great empires of his time, assumed the presidency, to 1950, when the cold war was in full gear. It concerns the rise of the United States from industrial powerhouse to an unparalleled world power managing a limited welfare state at home. How did the combination of two world wars and two waves of social reform (Progressivism and the New Deal) lead to that result?

HISTORY 469. Precolonial Southeast Asia
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines the history of Southeast Asia from the early first millennium to the early 19th century. It covers both mainland and island Southeast Asia and explores the interconnection between political, institutional, cultural and economic developments.

HISTORY 472. Topics in Asian History
(3). May be elected three times for credit.

This course is meant to examine an aspect, to be designated in the section title, of topics in Asian history.

HISTORY 473 / AAS 473 / LACS 483. Brazil: History and Culture
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines the history of Brazil, focusing on literature and performance as expressions of the national or regional cultural identities, with particular attention to racial categories and African heritage. Topics include: indigenous societies and responses to European invasion; slavery and paternalism; religious expression; and the ways that racial and ethnic identification has inspired much of Brazil's unique cultural production. When possible, we will include various ways of learning about cultural expression, incorporating interdisciplinary sources such as fiction, archival documents, testimony, ethnography, recorded music, and dance/movement.

HISTORY 476 / LHC 412. American Business History
Junior, senior, or graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

In this course, the origins, the development, and the growth of businesses are studied. The course traces the beginnings of American business enterprise from Europe and describes business activities during the American colonial, revolutionary, and pre-Civil War periods. It then discusses economic aspects of the Civil War, post-civil War industrial growth, business consolidation and the antitrust movement, economic aspects of World War I, business conditions during the 1920s, effects of the 1929 depression and the New Deal upon business, economic aspects of World War II, post-war business developments, the crash of 2007-2008 and some current business trends. The topics are enlivened by discussions of business personalities.

HISTORY 477. Law, History, and the Dynamics of Social Change
(2 - 3). May not be repeated for credit.

This is a topics course to cover different emphases on the interplay of juridical activity with the domain of social action. In some instances the focus will be on the roots of litigation and the evidence generated by it. In other cases, the course may explore practices of courts and key Supreme Court decisions, or various aspects of the links between ideology and jurisprudence.

HISTORY 478. Topics in Latin American History
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 480. Conflict and Diplomacy in the Caucasus
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines militarized conflicts (Nagorno Karabagh, South Ossetia and Abkhazia) and latent ones (such as Ajara and Javakheti) in the South Causasus as well as diplomatic efforts in conflict resolution in the last decade. The rise of conflicts and nationalism are studied in view of factors such as ethnicity, religion, class, historical processes, and of state-building in independent Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the context of post-Soviet international relations.

HISTORY 481. Topics in European History
(3). May be elected three times for credit.

This course is meant to examine an aspect, to be designated in the section title, of topics in European history.

HISTORY 494 / ECON 494. Topics in Economic History
ECON 401 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better); or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Study of issues in economic history with emphasis on a particular region of the world, a particular time period, or a topic of current interest. The specific topics vary depending on the faculty member teaching the course.

HISTORY 495. The World the Mongols Made
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course is about the rise of the Mongol enterprise and the global history that the Mongols created. Coverage includes the nature of nomadic society, the creation of Chinggis Khan's empire, the spread of that empire from China to Hungary, and the long-term impact of the Mongols on religion, politics, medicine, cuisine, neighboring societies, and a new notion of the world.

HISTORY 548 / ANTHRCUL 502 / ASIAN 502 / CCS 502 / HISTART 504 / POLSCI 502. Humanistic Studies of Historical and Contemporary China
Permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will examine the present state of research in selected areas of scholarly inquiry in Chinese studies - language, literature, history, religion material culture, and art history - as we interrogate such seemingly commonsense notions as "civilization," "culture," "tradition," "modernity," and above all, "Chineseness." Our goals are to develop good reading skills, stimulate critical thinking, and inspire imaginative approaches to humanistic problems.

HISTORY 549 / ANTHRCUL 501 / ASIAN 501 / CCS 501 / POLSCI 501 / SOC 527. Social Scientific Studies of Historical and Contemporary China
Permission of instructor. (3). May be elected twice for credit.

The course will focus on current issues in social scientific studies of historical and contemporary China. Each class will discuss a different disciplinary approach to a common subject, emphasizing the different research designs and data available and comparing the results with similar studies in other countries.

HISTORY 590. History Topics Mini-course
(1 - 2). May be elected three times for credit.

This course is meant to examine a topic, to be designated by the section title, offered as a mini-course.

HISTORY 591. Topics in European History
Upper-class standing. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This course is meant to examine an aspect, to be designated in the section title, of topics in European history.

HISTORY 592. Topics in Asian History
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This course is meant to examine an aspect to be designated in the section title, of topics in Asian history.

HISTORY 594. Topics in History
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is meant to examine an aspect, to be designated in the section title, of select topics in history not covered undera a specific country or time period.

HISTORY 595 / AAS 595. Topics in African History
CAAS 200. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is meant to examine an aspect, to be designated in the section title, of topics in African history.

HISTORY 600 / SI 580. Understanding Records and Archives: Principles and Practices
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Provides an understanding of why societies, cultures, organizations, and individuals create and keep records. Presents cornerstone terminology, concepts, and practices used in records management and archival administration. Examines the evolution of methods and technologies used to create, store, organize, and preserve records and the ways in which organizations and individuals are archives and records for ongoing operations, accountability, research, litigation, and organizational memory. Participants become familiar with the legal, policy, and ethical issues surrounding records and archives administration and become conversant with the structure, organization, and literature of the archival and records management professions.

HISTORY 610. Graduate Colloquium in World and Global History
May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to world and global history as a research and teaching field. Students will read some of the most interesting new work being done- along with classic studies that continue to exert strong influence. We will also consider pedagogical issues of presenting these approaches in the classroom.

HISTORY 611. The Literature of American History
Consent of instructor required. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The purpose of this graduate seminar is to introduce first-year graduate students to certain important topics within the monographic literature of American history. It will by no means attempt to be exhaustive, either in terms of chronological or topical coverage. Rather the goal is to concentrate on a few areas that have been and/or now seem of importance within the field and to examine critically a central text helping to define major issues and avenues of research.

HISTORY 612 / AMCULT 616. Native American History
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Students in this course will explore major themes in American Indian historiography including policy, gender, economy, and culture in an effort to understand past themes and future directions of American Indian history. Some questions which may be addressed include: How does the study of Native Americans challenge historians to rethink issues of race, class, and gender? What have Native American historians leaned from interdisciplinary approaches? How have literary theory and cultural studies influenced recent and current work? What is the future direction of the field?

HISTORY 615. Introduction to the Comparative Study of History
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 619 / RACKHAM 619 / SI 719. Knowledge/Power/Practice in Science, Technology, and Medicine
Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

The graduate seminar provides a comprehensive introduction to the major themes and issues in the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS, or S&TS). Drawing on scholarship in history, sociology, anthropology, and information studies, we will mix theoretical material with more empirically oriented studies. The course will focus particularly on the relation between social, political, and cultural contexts and the development of ideas, practices, tools, and objects within science, technology, and medicine. While some background in science, technology and/or medicine is helpful, this course does not require prior training in the field. Work for the seminar will include reading approximately 300 pages per week.

HISTORY 621 / WOMENSTD 621. Studies in Women's History
Juniors and seniors with permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 622 / ECON 663. Topics in World Economic History I
ECON 401, Intermediate economic theory/statistics. (3). May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 623 / ECON 664. Topics in World Economic History, II
ECON 401, Intermediate economic theory/statistics. (3). May be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 624 / ASIANPAM 614. Asian American History
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Through extensive readings in Asian American history, this course will survey scholarship dating from the origins of ethnic studies in the 1960's to the present. Discussions will focus on the following questions: How does the study of Asian Americans challenge historians to rethink issues of race, class, and gender? Why and how did the original vision of Asian American Studies emphasize social history and community studies? What have Asian American historians learned from interdisciplinary approaches? How have literary theory and cultural studies influenced recent and current work? What is the future direction of the field?"

HISTORY 629 / AAS 629. Studies in African History
(3). May be elected four times for credit.

Readings and discussions on various topics in African History.

HISTORY 630. Introduction to Greek and Roman Studies
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an introductory survey to historical interpretations, methodology, and comparative studies, and their relevance to Greek and Roman history. In addition to reading assigned texts and participating in discussion, students are expected to make presentations and write short reviews and a substantial paper on their own projects.

HISTORY 631. Greek Studies I
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 637 / SI 637. Research Seminar on Archives and Institutions of Social Memory
SI 580/HISTORY 600 or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a research seminar. Readings, discussions, and assignments focus on the central themes of the seminar: how collective memory is constructed and transferred over time and what roles documents, artifacts, and archival institutions play in capturing, conveying, and distorting collective memory. To accomplish this we explore a range of theories of collective memory, the historical relationships between orality and literacy, and postmodern perspectives on archives and why "the archive" has become a problematic concept. We examine the shifting connections between history, archives, and memory, as well as explore the relationships between memory and heritage, identity, and trauma. Different methodological approaches are reviewed to uncover how collective memory is mediated through phases of creation, dissemination, and reception.

HISTORY 639 / MENAS 639 / REEES 639. Graduate Colloquium in Central Eurasian History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This class is intended to introduce M.A. and Ph.D. students to Central Asia (or depending on who is making the definitions, "Central Eurasia") as a research and teaching field. It explores the emergence of "Central Asia" as a separately defined region by approaching it both internally (geographically, culturally, environmentally) and through its variable connections with Russian, Chinese, South Asian, and Islamic/Middle Eastern affairs. The course offers an opportunity to read classic as well as more recent interdisciplinary scholarship in Central Eurasian studies. We will cover places often discussed separately: in current pariance, this means five former Soviet republics (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) along with other parts of Central / Inner Asia such as Afghanistan, Xinjiang, Mongolia, and area of Iran, Pakistan, and the Russian Federation. This course explores the salience of such political lines, and throughout the semester we will consider the changing connections, exchanges, influences (and Conflicts) that stretch across them.

HISTORY 641. Studies in 20th Century European History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 648 / ANTHRCUL 648. Seminar in Anthropology and History I
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is organized around the intensive discussion of classic and path-breaking monographs and articles that address questions of theory and method in the humanities and social sciences, as well as the development of proposals for summer research for a research seminar paper.

HISTORY 649. Black Women's Political and Social History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is designed to introduce students to the political and social history of black women during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Histories of black women have deepened our understanding of the multiple systems of stratification in the United States and have introduced into American scholarship an Intersectional approach to examining systems of oppression. Course readings and discussions will utilize histories of black women as a window into exploring the intersections of oppression and African American women's political and social activism in U.S. history. These subjects offer a critical, if not unconventional, lens for us to grapple with more widely studied historical themes, such as nationalism, state-sponsored structures of inequity, international capitalist expansion, and class formation, for example. Of particular focus will be how systems of oppression such as racism, classism and sexism produced and perpetuated black women's social marginalization, economic insecurity, and political underrepresentation.

HISTORY 652. Studies in East European History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 654. Studies in Modern Russian History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 661 / SI 541. Knowledge and Information Infrastructures
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course offers historical, comparative, and theoretical perspectives on infrastructure from the 19th century to the present. The course examines how infrastructures form, how they change, and how they shape (and are shaped by) social systems. We will focus mainly on knowledge and information infrastructures: libraries, scientific research practices, the Internet, the World Wide Web, and cyberinfrastructures in the physical and social sciences. To set the stage, we will briefly explore transport, cities, and communication infrastructures. The course then turns to the historical roles of standards and social structures in infrastructure development. For example, we will study the emergence of such standards as shipping containers, library catalogs, race classification, TCP/IP, and scientific metadata, and the history of such social structures as scientific disciplines, research laboratories and universities. Finally, we will explore the frontiers of the emerging field of infrastructure studies.

HISTORY 674. Studies in Modern Southeast Asia
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course covers both insular and mainland Southeast Asia in the modern period. Specific topics may vary from year to year.

HISTORY 675. Theorizing Religion
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Every historical or ethnographic description invoking "religion" contains within it a theory of that term, whether implicit or explicit. How has religion been configured as a comparative category in the West? To what purpose, and with what kinds of effects? This class has four objectives: 1) to acquire a modest control of key classical theoretical texts on religion which have provided, and continue to provide, much of the working vocabulary used in interpretations and analyses of religion; 2) to see religion as a key term that contains within it a genealogy of Western reflection and self-construction in relation to putative others; 3) to interrogate these classic texts and their contemporary heirs and evaluate their relative utility for interpreting religion in students? own project; and 4) to transform inherited theories of religion, often implicit or embedded, into conscious and deliberate choices that inform our work. The temporary trajectory covered will be from the mid-18th century (Hume) to the 1960s polarization between structuralism (Levi-Strauss) and critical theories like the Frankfort School (Adorno) along with selected departures to engage current critical responses to these "big" theories of religions.

HISTORY 676. Studies in Modern Japanese History
JR/SR P.I. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This is an introductory graduate course for students planning to write a dissertation in modern Japanese studies or take a field in the same area. The course is designed to familiarize students with thematic topics as well as historiographic and theoretical issues in the field of modern Japanese history. While readings are primarily in English language secondary sources, students are encouraged to read specific sources in Japanese.

HISTORY 678. Studies in the History of Modern South Asia
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is meant to examine aspects of Modern South Asia. Specific topics could vary from year to year.

HISTORY 679. Legal History Workshop
(2 - 3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course features presentations by leading scholars from around the country who work in this interdisciplinary field. Participants include faculty from the Law School and LSA. Presentations situate legal developments in social, political, intellectual, and cultural context. They explore a range of substantive and methodological questions arising in legal-historical work. Papers address questions at the intersection of law and, inter alia, the study of race, gender, ethnicity, and class. Students earning academic credit are full participants and expected to prepare short critiques of each paper in advance.

HISTORY 680. Studies in Colonial America
(3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 688. Studies in Twentieth-Century American History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course covers various aspects of 20th Century United States History. Specific topics and/or time periods may vary from year to year.

HISTORY 691. Studies in Latin American and Caribbean History
Reading knowledge of Spanish or Portuguese highly desirable. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Examines Latin American and Caribbean history for the period 1810-1930, with a particular emphasis on the linkages between economic and social history, on the one hand, and political movements, on the other.

HISTORY 698. Topics in History
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 700. Independent Research Seminar
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 701. Seminar in Ancient History I
Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 715. Seminar in Early Modern European History
Reading knowledge of French or German. Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 719. Seminar in Modern European History
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 729 / SOC 729. Large-Scale Political Transformations
SOC 100, 195, or 300; reading knowledge of one European language other than English; Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 737 / SI 737. Special Problems in Archives Administration
Doctoral student status. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a research seminar. Readings, discussions, and assignments focus on the central themes of the seminar: how collective memory is constructed and transferred over time and what roles documents, artifacts, and archival institutions play in capturing, conveying, and distorting collective memory. To accomplish this we explore a range of theories of collective memory, the historical relationships between orality and literacy, and postmodern perspectives on archives and why "the archives" has become a problematic concept. We examine the shifting connections between history, archives, and memory, as well as explore the relationships between memory and heritage, identity, and trauma. Different methodological approaches are reviewed to uncover how collective memory is mediated through phases of creation, dissemination, and reception.

HISTORY 748 / ANTHRCUL 748. Seminar in Anthropology and History II
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is primarily a writing seminar that satisfies the 700-level History seminar requirement. It offers Anthropology and History Program students the opportunity to write the extended paper conceived in the winter term and drawing on the preliminary research conducted during the intervening summer break.

HISTORY 771. Research Seminar in U.S. History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

The purpose of this graduate research seminar is to prepare participants to produce a substantial research paper (which students will be expected to write during the course of the term) based principally on unpublished, published, and or electronic primary sources on topics related to some field within U.S. history. Class discussions and reading may focus on such topics as sources and methods for doing historical research, historiography, and modes of historical analysis.

HISTORY 781 / AAS 781. Seminar in Black American History
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 786 / AAS 786. Seminar in African History
(3). May be elected three times for credit.

This seminar is about the mechanics of writing African history. It surveys the genesis of the field, and brings into view the range of entrepreneurs who composed African history. Students will, over the course of the semester, assemble evidence, develop a line of argument, and write a publication-ready essay.

HISTORY 790. Getting the Documents to Speak: A Research Practicum
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar is designed as a framework within which graduate students in history and closely-related disciplines can carry out independent scholarly research based on primary sources. By focusing on different places and problematics within the Atlantic world, the seminar aims to encourage both comparative and connective approaches to historical inquiry. By asking about the cultural practice of writing in particular contexts, and about the circumstances under which written tests are produced, we will combine a discussion of craft with attention to each student's individual long-term research project.

HISTORY 793 / AAPTIS 793 / MENAS 695. Seminar: The Study of the Near East
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 796. Topics in History
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 801. Reading Course
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 802. Reading Course
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 803. Reading for the General Examination
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected twice for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HISTORY 804. Reading for the General Examination
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected twice for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HISTORY 806 / GREEK 806. Greek Law and Rhetoric
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 808. History Pedagogy Seminar I: Preparing to Teach College-Level History Courses
Consent of department required. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

This course will focus specifically on preparing students for their first semester as a GSI in an UM undergraduate section in the coming academic year. The course will integrate reading and discussion of appropriate pedagogical theory with mock-teaching and classroom observation. Students will visit a number of actual undergraduate discussion sections.

HISTORY 809. History Pedagogy Seminar II: Teaching Discussion Sections in History
Consent of department required. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

All students will be working as GSIs for the first time during the second year, this course will focus on implementing what they have learned in History 808 in the course they are teaching or will teach as a GSI. The course will also include participation in a number of required CRLT workshops and a special history department workshop, held the week before classes begin, that will help students prepare to teach their specific section at UM. Students will attend additional relevant workshops coordinated by the instructor. Students not teaching until the Winter term will be incorporated into the course.

HISTORY 810. History Pedagogy Seminar III: Teaching Discussion Sections in History
Consent of department required. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

This course will incorporate both theoretical and practical teaching issues, including those that arise in the students' own classes. As in 809, most students will take 810 while they are working as GSIs. Special provisions will be made for students who are teaching for the first time. In addition, students will be guided toward creating a teaching portfolio.

HISTORY 811. History Teaching Practicum
Consent of department required. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HISTORY 812. Seminar on History Pedagogy
Second-year Graduate standing or higher. (3). May be elected six times for credit.

HISTORY 826. Seminar in Pre-Modern Japanese History
HISTORY 673, reading knowledge of Japanese, Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

HISTORY 830 / ANTHRCUL 830. Anthropology and History Workshop/Reading Group
(1). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

HISTORY 891. Dissertation Research/Writing Seminar
(3). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

This course is designed to give general support to those graduate students grappling with the problems of organizing their archival materials, shaping their projects into finished dissertation form, and developing the writing strategies most suited for this process. Students freshly back from the archives or a year further along are the primary constituency, although there is no objection to participation from those who are more advanced. This course is seen as an excellent means of overcoming some of the anxieties accompanying the return from the archives, and the relative isolation many students may experience during the unnecessarily lonely struggle with the writing stage of the dissertation. A primary goal of this course is for participants to produce one or two chapters of the dissertation in a more structured setting, while reading and discussing the work of other graduate students in the fourth or fifth year of the program and receiving their feedback on your work as well. The dissertation writing seminar can provide useful feedback on dissertation work from a broader range of expertise and methodological points of view than normally encompassed in a dissertation committee. The colloquium also should create an intellectual forum that brings together graduate students in disparate fields, in order to encourage cross-field dialogue and consequent broadening of horizons.

HISTORY 898. Dissertation Colloquium Candidacy
Ph.D. candidacy status. Graduate standing. (1). May not be repeated for credit.

The dissertation colloquium seeks to meet three needs: (1) to provide useful criticism of disseration work from a wider range of expertise and methodological points of view than normally encompassed in a dissertation committee; (2) to provide advanced students with experience in public presentation of scholarly papers; (3) to create an intellectual forum that will bring together graduate students in disparate fields, so as to encourage cross-field dialogue and consequent broadening of horizons.

HISTORY 900. Preparation for Preliminary Examinations
Consent of instructor required. Normally to be taken only in the term in which a student plans to take his general preliminary examinations. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HISTORY 990. Dissertation/Precandidate
Election for dissertation work by doctoral student not yet admitted as a Candidate. Graduate standing. (1 - 8; 1 - 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HISTORY 993. Graduate Student Instructor Training Program
Must have Teaching Assistant award. Graduate standing. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HISTORY 995. Dissertation/Candidate
Graduate School authorization for admission as a doctoral Candidate. Consent of instructor required. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (8; 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

Medieval and Early Modern Studies (MEMS)
MEMS 411. Special Topics
(1 - 3). May not be repeated for credit.

MEMS 440 / LATIN 435. Postclassical Latin I
Two years of college Latin. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

MEMS 465 / ENGLISH 465. Chaucer: The Canterbury Tales
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an intensive study of Chaucer's major works. It includes reading in Middle English and background lectures covering as many tales as possible at the instructor's discretion.

MEMS 490. Directed Reading
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit.

MEMS 890. Direct Research Study
(2 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits.

This course is designed for students enrolled in off-campus seminars offered through University consortium partners.

MEMS 891. Direct Research Study
(2 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

This course is designed for students enrolled in off-campus seminars offered through University consortium partners.

MEMS 898. Interdisciplinary Dissertation Colloquium in Medieval and Early Modern Studies
Instructor Permission. (1 - 3). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

This colloquium will provide advanced students in medieval and early modern studies with the opportunity to present their work-in-progress to peers from a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, and to address issues in research, method, and writing of common interest across the disciplines. Counts toward the certificate in MEMS.

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