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Courses in LSA Near Eastern Studies
Arabic, Armenian, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies (AAPTIS)
The division of Arabic, Armenian, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies (AAPTIS) offers instruction at the introductory to the advanced levels in medieval and modern Arabic, Armenian, Persian, and Turkish languages and literatures. Courses in the histories and cultures of select regions represented by these language groups are also offered as are a wide range of topics in Islamic studies.
AAPTIS 412. Intensive Advanced Business Arabic I and II
AAPTIS 202, or 204, or 205 with a minimum grade of C. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) This course is for students, community members, and government personnel who have completed at least two years of Arabic and wish to continue Arabic study for career and professional purposes. (8 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AAPTIS 409 or 410. Rackham credit requires additional work.

AAPTIS 412 is an 8-credit intensive course equivalent in content, objectives, requirement and credits to the non-intensive two semester non-intensive two semester sequence AAPTIS 409-410.

AAPTIS 462 / HISTORY 428. The Rise of Islam
Junior standing or permission of instructor. Taught in English. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English.

The Near East and eastern Mediterranean world in late antiquity; Muhammad and the formation of Islam; the early Islamic empire at its heights.

AAPTIS 463 / HISTORY 537. The Near East in the Period of the Crusades, 945-1258
Junior standing. (3). (R&E). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English.

AAPTIS 493 / MENAS 493. Comparative Perspectives of the Middle East and North Africa
(1). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This 1-credit course, jointly offered by CMENAS and the Near Eastern Studies, brings together a diverse cohort of specialists covering 5000 years of history, languages, and culture, and a geographical area stretching from the Atlantic to Central Asia. Through a series of lectures by UM faculty and outside speakers, addressing a particular theme chose for that semester, students consider multiple perspectives of comparative research across the ages and cultures.

AAPTIS 515. Colloquial Egyptian Arabic, I
AAPTIS 102 or equivalent. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The 515-516 sequence provides oral and communicative practice based on situational dialogues as used by native Egyptian speakers. The basic principles of pronunciation, grammar and functional vocabulary are emphasized through oral and pattern practice drills. The goal is to develop the ability to communicate with native speakers of Egyptian Arabic with some ease.

AAPTIS 518. Colloquial Levantine Arabic, II
AAPTIS 517. (3). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AAPTIS 218.

The 517-518 sequence provides extensive oral and communicative practice based on situational dialogues as used by native speakers in Jerusalem, Amman, Damascus and Beirut. Emphasis is placed on basic principles of pronunciation, grammar and functional vocabulary, the practical use of dialect through interactive communicative tasks, and cultural and social conventions.

AAPTIS 519 / ASIANLAN 519. Introductory Central Asian Language
(4 - 5). May be elected three times for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AAPTIS 119 or ASIANLAN 119. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write at a basic level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

AAPTIS 520 / ASIANLAN 520. Introductory Central Asian Language II
AAPTIS 519 or ASIANLAN 519 with a grade of at least C-. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4 - 5). May be elected three times for credit. May not repeat the same language at the same level. Undergraduate students elect AAPTIS 120 or ASIANLAN 120; graduate students elect AAPTIS 520 or ASIANLAN 520.

This course develops student's ability to speak, listen, read, and write at an intermediate level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

AAPTIS 550 / ASIANLAN 550. Intermediate Central Asian Language II
AAPTIS 549 or ASIANLAN 549 with a grade of at least C-. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3 - 5). May be elected three times for credit. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops student's ability to speak, listen, read, and write at an intermediate level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

AAPTIS 555. Arabic Second Language Acquisition
AAPTIS 202 or 204. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Arabic second language acquisition examines: (1) how Arabic as a second/foreign language is learned; (2) what factors contribute to different learning outcomes and variability; and (3) how second language learners of Arabic of different native language backgrounds can attain superior or near native competence. Research findings on Arabic and other languages will be examined not only from the perspective of the researcher, but also from that of the teacher. Hence, the course also aims at developing the skills to interpret research findings as well as to use relevant findings to inform teaching.

AAPTIS 559 / ASIANLAN 559. Advanced Central Asian Language I
AAPTIS 550 or ASIANLAN 550. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3 - 4). May be elected three times for credit. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops student's ability to speak, listen, read, and write at an advanced level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

AAPTIS 560 / ASIANLAN 560. Advanced Central Asian Language II
AAPTIS 559 or ASIANLAN 559. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3 - 4). May be elected three times for credit. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops student's ability to speak, listen, read, and write at an advanced level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

AAPTIS 592. Seminar in Arabic, Armenian, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This seminar course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in the field of Arabic, Armenian, Persian, Turkish, and Islamic Studies taught by temporary faculty or as a testing course for permanent faculty.

AAPTIS 793 / HISTORY 793 / MENAS 695. Seminar: The Study of the Near East
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

AAPTIS 993. Graduate Student Instructor Training Program
Consent of instructor required. Must have a Teaching Assistantship. Graduate standing. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies (ACABS)
ACABS 421 / CLCIV 483 / RELIGION 488. Christianity and Hellenistic Civilizations
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar course covers a number of topics exploring the relationship between Christianity as a religious tradition in antiquity and the cultural and social traditions of the ancient Mediterranean.

ACABS 474 / AAS 474. The Archaeology of Nubia
ACABS 281, ACABS 382, AAS 200, or ANTHRARC 282. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course presents the archaeology and history of one of Africa's earliest civilizations, Nubia, which is located along the Nile in what is today southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It summarizes developments in Nubian history from the expansion of the Sahara desert and the first human settlement in the Nile Valley and concluding with the fall of Meroe in about AD 300. Topics include rise of states and empires, colonialism, identities, international trade, and the relationship of climate change to social development. The course concludes with discussions of modern politics of cultural heritage and museums in the Middle East and Africa.

ACABS 487 / WOMENSTD 487. Gender and Society in Ancient Egypt
Some familiarity with Egypt is helpful. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Using ancient texts in translation, secondary readings and artifacts in the Kelsey Museum of Archaeology, students in this course will examine the definitions of gender, gender roles and relations and the impact of status, religion, sexuality and ethnicity on ancient Egyptian understandings of gender.

ACABS 491. Topics in Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in the field of Ancient Civilization and Biblical Studies taught by temporary faculty or as a testing course for permanent faculty.

ACABS 591. Topics in Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

ACABS 592. Seminar in Ancient Civilizations and Biblical Studies
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

ACABS 610. Akkadian Literary Texts
ACABS 412. (3). May be elected nine times for a maximum of 12 credits.

ACABS 611. Akkadian Documents
ACABS 412 or equivalent. (3). May be elected four times for credit.

Readings of Akkadian legal, administrative, and economic documents.

ACABS 612. Akkadian Readings
ACABS 412. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits.

ACABS 613. Sumerian Literary Texts
ACABS 512. Graduate standing. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits.

ACABS 615. Sumerian Readings
ACABS 512. Graduate standing. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits.

ACABS 722. Ancient Israel/Hebrew Bible Seminar: Topics in History and Historiography
ACABS 202. Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

ACABS 798. Directed Graduate Readings
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

ACABS 990. Dissertation Research Precandidate
Election for dissertation work by doctoral candidate not yet admitted as a Candidate. Graduate standing. (1 - 8; 1 - 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

ACABS 993. Graduate Student Instructor Training Program
Consent of instructor required. Must have a Teaching Assistantship. Graduate standing. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

ACABS 995. Dissertation/Candidate
Graduate School authorization for admission as a doctoral Candidate. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (8; 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

Arabic Studies (ARABIC)
ARABIC 401. Advanced Arabic I
ARABIC 202 (AAPTIS 202), ARABIC 203 (AAPTIS 205) completed with a minimum grade of C- or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) ARABIC 202 (AAPTIS 202), ARABIC 203 (AAPTIS 205) or assignment to ARABIC 401 by placement test. (5). May not be repeated for credit.

This is the first of a two semester sequence of Advanced level Arabic. Students learn to understand, speak, read and write Arabic at Advanced Low to Advanced Mid level in addition to learning cultural meanings of language.

ARABIC 402. Advanced Arabic II
ARABIC 401 (AAPTIS 403) (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) ARABIC 401 (AAPTIS 403) or by assignment to ARABIC 402 (AAPTIS 404) by placement test. (5). May not be repeated for credit.

This is the second of a two semester sequence of Advanced level Arabic. Students learn to understand, speak, read and write Arabic at Advanced Mid level in addition to learning cultural meanings of language.

ARABIC 411. Classical Arabic Grammar
Three years of Arabic study. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will approach the study of Arabic grammar in the same way as it was approached by traditional Arab grammarians. We will analyze the structure of Arabic discourse by applying Arabic grammatical terminology and highlighting the relationship of the lexical meaning of the term to its denoted function. Illustrative examples are taken from classical texts including but not limited to Qur'an, Hadith, literary prose and pre-Islamic poetry.

ARABIC 420. Colloquial Egyptian Arabic I
ARABIC 202 or 203; equivalent of second year proficiency in Modern Standard Arabic. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The ARABIC 420/421 sequence is recommended for undergraduate or graduate students who need Arabic for immediate use. It provides oral and communicative practice based on situational dialogues as used by native speakers in Cairo, Egypt. In ARABIC 420, the basic principles of pronunciation, grammar, and functional vocabulary are emphasized through oral and pattern practice drills. Towards the end of the course emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and interactive situations containing more cultural and idiomatic content.

ARABIC 421. Colloquial Egyptian Arabic II
ARABIC 420 with a minimum grade of C-. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (Lang Req). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a continuation of ARABIC 420. In this course, there is more emphasis on interaction based on situational dialogues including cultural and idiomatic content. This course is also accompanied by audio recordings of pronunciation drills, situational dialogues, vocabulary and idiomatic expressions, and listening comprehension passages.

ARABIC 425. Colloquial Levantine Arabic I
ARABIC 202 or 203; second year proficiency in Modern Standard Arabic. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The sequence ARABIC 425/426 is recommended for undergraduate or graduate students who need Arabic for immediate oral use. It provides oral and communicative practice based on situational dialogues as used by native speakers in Jerusalem, Beirut, Damascus and Amman. In ARABIC 425, the basic principles of pronunciation, grammar, and functional vocabulary are emphasized through oral and pattern practice drills. Towards the end of the course emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on expanded vocabulary and interactive situations containing more cultural and idiomatic content.

ARABIC 426. Colloquial Levantine Arabic II
ARABIC 425 with a minimum grade of C-. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (Lang Req). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is a continuation of ARABIC 425. In this course, the emphasis shifts to practical use of the dialect based on situational dialogues including cultural and idiomatic content. The goal is to develop the ability to communicate with native speakers of Levantine Arabic with ease through the use of tape recordings of the drills and the dialogues outside class and group dynamic interactions in class.

ARABIC 499. Independent Study in Arabic
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected three times for credit.

An independent study course in the area of Arabic. The intended language of instruction is Arabic. Approval from the department is required.

ARABIC 501. Advanced Arabic Conversation and Composition
ARABIC 402 (AAPTIS 404) or equivalent. Taught in Arabic. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The objectives of this course are to develop fluency and accuracy in understanding, speaking, and writing modern standard Arabic, and to expand students' awareness of Arab-Islamic culture and civilization. The course is based on a variety of literary texts and authentic cultural audio-visual materials.

ARABIC 502. Readings in Arabic
ARABIC 501 (AAPTIS 501) or equivalent. Taught in Arabic. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course, meant for advanced Arabic language students, covers a variety of topics that range from literature, translation, history, culture and society. Readings are in Arabic and the course is taught in Arabic.

ARABIC 504. Advanced Arabic Media I
ARABIC 402 (AAPTIS 404) or equivalent. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Emphasizes developing ease and fluency in listening, speaking, reading and writing journalistic Arabic. Course material includes unedited news items and radio and television programs which serve as the basis for class discussion and writing summaries.

ARABIC 505. Advanced Arabic Media II
ARABIC 402 (AAPTIS 404) with a minimum grade of C. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) ARABIC 504. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

This course exposes students to various types of Arabic mass media at an advanced level of proficiency. Materials include editorials and opinion texts chosen from newspapers, magazines, television programs, radio broadcasts and the World Wide Web. The course covers a host of political, economic, historical and social issues in the contemporary Arab world, with a special focus on critical reading, analysis and writing. The course is conducted entirely in Arabic.

ARABIC 506. Arabic Phonology and Morphophonology
ARABIC 402 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who are enrolled in or have completed ARABIC 606.

Arabic Phonology and Morphology examines the phonetic, phonological, and morphophonological features of standard and dialectal Arabic.

ARABIC 507 / LING 433. Arabic Syntax and Semantics
AAPTIS 202 or 205 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The course examines generative syntactic theory, especially the notion of principles and parameters, as well as functional, cognitive, and lexical semantic approaches and their relevance of analysis to standard Arabic and at least one Arabic dialect, using as a reference point medieval Arabic grammar.

ARABIC 508. Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology
ARABIC 402 (AAPTIS 404) (completed with a minimum grade of C or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course surveys the development of the Arabic language from its origins to the present. The structure and development of Old, Middle, and Modern Arabic and their affinities to other indigenous dialects and languages are outlined. The historical implications of the development of communal dialects, sociolinguistic variation, and inherent linguistic variability are treated.

ARABIC 509. Arabic Second Language Acquisition
AAPTIS 202 or 205, (completed with a minimum grade of C or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Arabic second language acquisition examines: (1) how Arabic as a second/foreign language is learned, (2) what factors contribute to different learning outcomes and variability, and (3) how second language learners of Arabic with different native language backgrounds can attain superior or near native competence. Research findings on Arabic and other languages are explored not only from the perspective of the researcher, but also from that of the teacher. Hence, the course helps students in developing skills to interpret research findings as well as using relevant findings to inform teaching.

ARABIC 510. Topics in Arabic Language
ARABIC 402 or advanced proficiency. Students may not take the same topic twice. (3). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students with advanced Arabic language proficiency. Topics will vary, focusing on aspects of culture, linguistics, literature, music, film, history, etc. All material will be in Arabic, and the class will be taught in Arabic.

ARABIC 513. Arabic-English Translation: Theory and Practice
Completion of ARABIC 402 or permission of the instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Examines linguistic and textual issues at the word, sentence, and discourse levels and explores methods of translation and the translator's latitude in reconstructing the meaning of the source text. Taught in English.

ARABIC 515. Business Arabic I
ARABIC 402 (AAPTIS 404) or equivalent. (4). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who are enrolled in or have completed ARABIC 517 (AAPTIS 412).

Business Arabic is offered for students and other members of the business community who have completed Advanced Arabic or the equivalent and wish to continue Arabic study for career and professional purposes. This course focuses on topics pertinent to business correspondence, commercial advertisements, and business transactions through authentic texts supported by images, audio and video cassettes.

ARABIC 516. Business Arabic II
ARABIC 515 (AAPTIS 409). (4). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in ARABIC 517 (AAPTIS 412).

This course is the sequel to Business Arabic I. There is increased emphasis in Business Arabic II on banking documents and transactions, commercial and government contracts and agreements. It provides opportunities for the study and analysis of various aspects of Islamic banking and finance through authentic texts, brochures, and audiovisual materials including lectures and films.

ARABIC 600. Reading Modern Arab Authors in Arabic
ARABIC 402, ARABIC 501, or permission of instructor. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

Selected texts (novels, short stories, poetry, and personal interviews), written by modern Arab authors in the last two decades, will read and discussed in Arabic, with a special emphasis on the language and strategies of narration, cultural contextualizations and the sheer pleasure of reading an original text.

ARABIC 601. Modern Arabic Fiction
ARABIC 402 or reading knowledge of Arabic. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Selected examples of contemporary imaginative prose writing, such as short and long fiction and drama, will be studied. Readings will be in Arabic and class discussions will be in English.

ARABIC 602. Modern Arabic Nonfiction
ARABIC 401 or reading knowledge of Arabic. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces the work of major Arab writers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Variable in focus according the interests of the class, readings are selected for translation, analysis, and commentary. The course explores the historical progression in the development of political and societal theories in modern times in the Arab world.

ARABIC 603. Classical Arabic Poetry
ARABIC 402 or equivalent. (3). May be elected twice for credit.

Students will read poems in Arabic written prior to the Arabic renaissance (or al-Nahdah).

ARABIC 604. Modern Arabic Poetry
ARABIC 402; fluency in Arabic at the advanced level. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This course is meant to introduce students of modern Arabic literature to the sheer pleasure of reading--and discussing--a poem in the original language. We will closely read and analyze selected poems written throughout the century, representing different schools and trends.

ARABIC 605. Medieval Arabic Historical, Biographical, and Geographical Texts
ARABIC 402. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits.

Reading and intensive study of selected texts, in Arabic, from the Islamic Middle Ages. Course rotates focus on major writers from three traditions or genres; historical, biographical, or geographical traditions.

ARABIC 606. Arabic Phonology and Morphology
AAPTIS 202 or 205, completed with a minimum grade of C or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines the phonetics, phonological, and morphophonological features of literary and dialectal Arabic.

ARABIC 607. Arabic Syntax and Semantics
AAPTIS 202 or 205, completed with a minimum grade of C or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The course examines generative syntactic theory, especially the notion of principles and parameters. It also addresses functional, cognitive, and lexical semantic approaches and the relevance of analysis to Modern Standard Arabic and at least one Arabic dialect, using as a reference point medieval Arabic grammar.

ARABIC 608. Arabic Historical Linguistics and Dialectology
AAPTIS 202 or 205, completed with a minimum grade of C or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course surveys the development of the Arabic language from its origins to the present. The structure and development of Old, Middle, and Modern Arabic and their affinities to other indigenous dialects and languages are outlined. The historical implications of the development of communal dialects, sociolinguistic variation, and inherent linguistic variability are treated.

ARABIC 609. Arabic Second Language Acquisition
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines: (1) how Arabic as a second/foreign language is learned, (2) what factors contribute to different learning outcomes and variability, and (3) how second language learners of Arabic with different native language backgrounds can attain superior or near native competence. Research findings on Arabic and other languages are explored not only from the perspective of the researcher, but also from that of the teacher. Hence, the course helps students in developing skills to interpret research findings as well as using relevant findings to inform teaching.

ARABIC 611. Graduate Seminar in Arabic Language
Advanced Arabic proficiency. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This seminar will discuss concepts, theories, or practices relevant to the study, teaching, or use of Arabic language. The instruction and all materials will be in Arabic. Topics will vary.

ARABIC 612. Arabic Teaching Methodology
Permission of instructor and advanced knowledge of Arabic. Graduate standing. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

ARABIC 613. Arabic Curriculum Development
(2). May not be repeated for credit.

The main purpose of this course is to provide students and Arabic instructors with training in curriculum development. The course starts with a review of the various approaches to foreign language curriculum design, followed by careful study and analysis of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines and ACTFL National Standards of Foreign Language Learning. The participants will be guided through examination of successful models of curriculum samples to design curriculum materials covering the four language skills for all levels of Arabic instruction. The course features hands-on work with material development in small groups under the direction of the course instructor.

Armenian Studies (ARMENIAN)
ARMENIAN 499. Independent Study in Armenian
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

An independent study course in the area of Armenian language. The intended language of instruction is Armenian.

ARMENIAN 501. Western Armenian I
(4). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the Western Armenian Language with exercises in reading, writing, and speaking. A balanced approach giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture will be employed.

ARMENIAN 502. Western Armenian II
ARMENIAN 501. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the Western Armenian Language with exercises in reading, writing, and speaking. A balanced approach giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture will be employed.

ARMENIAN 505. Eastern Armenian I
(4). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the Eastern Armenian Language with exercises in reading, writing, and speaking. A balanced approach giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture will be employed.

ARMENIAN 506. Eastern Armenian II
ARMENIAN 505. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the Eastern Armenian Language with exercises in reading, writing, and speaking. A balanced approach giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture will be employed.

ARMENIAN 601. Intermediate Western Armenian I
ARMENIAN 502. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Continuation of Western Armenian II. Reading, composition and conversation. A balanced approach, giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian Culture.

ARMENIAN 602. Intermediate Western Armenian II
ARMENIAN 601. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Continuation of Intermediate Western Armenian I. Reading, composition and conversation. A balanced approach, giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture.

ARMENIAN 605. Intermediate Eastern Armenian I
ARMENIAN 506. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Continuation of Eastern Armenian II. Reading, composition and conversation. A balanced approach, giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture.

ARMENIAN 606. Intermediate Eastern Armenian II
ARMENIAN 605. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Continuation of Eastern Armenian I. Reading, composition and conversation. A balanced approach, giving equal emphasis to the development of language skills and the study of Armenian culture.

Hebrew Studies (HEBREW)
HEBREW 404. Ethnicity in Israeli Literature and Culture
HEBREW 302 (HJCS 302). (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course focuses on Israeli literature, film, and music created by Jewish immigrants from the Middle East and North Africa. We consider how the categories of ethnicity, class, and gender have been constructed in Israel and ask why the Mizrahi/Ashkenazi divide continues to be so central to Israeli culture, society, and politics.

HEBREW 409. Readings in Modern Hebrew
Consent of instructor required. Intermediate level proficiency or higher in modern Hebrew. (1 - 2). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected four times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is intended for Hebrew language students who wish to take an independent study that requires them to read texts in modern Hebrew.

HEBREW 499. Independent Study in Hebrew
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

An independent study course in the area of Hebrew language. The intended language of instruction is modern Hebrew.

Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies (HJCS)
HJCS 472. Introduction to Modern Hebrew Literature, II
HJCS 302. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

HJCS 477 / JUDAIC 478 / RELIGION 478. Modern Jewish Thought
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English.

HJCS 478 / JUDAIC 468 / RELIGION 469. Jewish Mysticism
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Taught in English.

A critical study of the historical development of Jewish mysticism, its symbolic universe and its social ramifications. While the course will survey mystical traditions from the early rabbinic period through the modern, the focus will be on the variegated medieval stream known as kabbalah.

HJCS 491. Topics in Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in the field of Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies taught by temporary professors or as a testing course for permanent faculty.

HJCS 576 / JUDAIC 505. Introduction to Jewish Civilizations and Culture
Graduate standing. (4). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in JUDAIC 205/HJCS 276.

An interdisciplinary, introductory survey of Jewish civilization and culture from Biblical times to the present in many countries. Jewish culture and civilization, among the oldest extant, have been enriched by their development in different cultural contexts. The course includes history, rabbinics, Jewish Thought, Hebrew and Yiddish literatures, sociology, political science.

HJCS 577 / JUDAIC 467 / RELIGION 471. Seminar: Topics in the Study of Judaism
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

Topics within history of modern Judaism such as reform and tradition in modern Judaism, theological responses to the Holocaust, modern Jewish philosophy. Topics will change.

HJCS 591. Topics in Hebrew and Jewish Cultural Studies
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

HJCS 798. Directed Graduate Readings
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

HJCS 990. Dissertation Research Precandidate
Election for dissertation work by doctoral candidate not yet admitted as a Candidate. Graduate standing. (1 - 8; 1 - 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HJCS 993. Graduate Student Instructor Training Program
Consent of instructor required. Must have a Teaching Assistantship. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

HJCS 995. Dissertation Research
Graduate School authorization for admission as a doctoral Candidate. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (8; 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

Near East Studies (NEAREAST)
NEAREAST 415. The Literature of the Turks
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

The objective of the course is to provide an introduction to the literary activities of the Turkic peoples from their origins in Central Asia around 600 AD to the Turkish contribution to world literature today. Taught in English with English translations of prose and poetry.

NEAREAST 416. The Sultan and His Subjects: Society and Culture in the Ottoman Empire
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the Turko-Islamic elite and popular culture of the Ottoman Empire. The course approaches its subject within the broader context of Islamic culture on the one hand, and the specific geographical and social conditions of the Ottoman world on the other.

NEAREAST 420 / HISTORY 484. Persianate Culture and Literature from the Medieval to the Early Modern
Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The course will focus on the Persianate idiom in medieval and early modern Islamdom, delineating the ways in which pre-Islamic cultural systems shaped a variety of Muslim identities (Shi'i, and Sufi) in its central and eastern landscapes (Iran, Iraq, Asia Minor, Northern India). We will study this world view through a medley of texts--epics like Ferdowsi's Book of Kings, Sufi poetry like Attar's Conference of Birds, and philosophical treatises like Nasir al-Din's Tusi's Ethics. Courtly circles, coffeehouses and theological seminaries will be explored so as to provide texture to the arenas in which this ethos was expressed and experienced. Constructs such as loyalty, piety, and honor will serve as tools not only to study another culture, but to enter another world which is to be understood on its own terms. Students will be expected to read all their assignments and be prepared to discuss the material in class. Grades are based on participation, presentations and papers.

NEAREAST 421 / RELIGION 465. Islamic Mysticism: Sufism in Time and Space
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Beginning with the Qur'anic origins of Islamic mysticism and its early Christian and ascetic influences, this course will explore the central themes and institutional forms of Sufism, a stream of Islam which stresses the esoteric (mystical) dimensions of religious faith. It will reflect upon the inward quest and devotions of Muslim mystics as these have been lived and expressed in art, theology, literature, and fellowship since the 8th century CE.

NEAREAST 422 / RELIGION 467. Shi'ism: The History of Messianism and the Pursuit of Justice in Islamdom
Junior standing or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The course will survey the history of diverse Alid movements from the assassination of Ali (d.661) to the crystallization of shi'ism into distinct political, legal and theological schools (Twelver, Isma'ili, Zaydi), and ends with the establishment of Twelver Shi'ism as an imperial religion in Safvi Iran (1501-1722). Emphasis on the debate over authority.

NEAREAST 423. Islamic Law
NEAREAST 216. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will introduce students to classical Islamic legal theory and some applications of positive law in the Sunni tradition. This will include an examination of such key issues as ijtihad versus taqlid, the madhhab (or school of law), the legal responsum (fatwa), legal eclecticism, and the issue of legal change, stasis and borrowing.

NEAREAST 424. Islamic Intellectual History
Taught in English. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

A comparative study of Islamic Sufism, theosophy, philosophy, and dialectical theology, focusing on how these diverse fields - varying in methodology and purpose - have conceived of God and the relationship between him and the created world, especially the world of human beings.

NEAREAST 425. An Introduction to Classical and Medieval Armenian Literature
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will explore the history of Armenian literature from the 5th to the 15th centuries. It will highlight the ways in which the new, Christian Armenian tradition was formulated as well as the subsequent phases of its evolution. Various aspects of the new identity and fresh themes and genres that echoed Armenian concerns and aspirations will be critically evaluated against a historical and comparative background.

NEAREAST 426. An Introduction to Modern Armenian Literature
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will outline a history of Armenian Literature from the 16th to the 20th centuries, concentrating on the works of major authors who flourished within and without Armenia. Both the traditional and new literature will be analyzed, but a greater emphasis will be placed on the 19th-20th centuries, including Eastern and Western Armenian literatures, literature of the post-Genocide dispersion, and that of Soviet Armenia.

NEAREAST 427. Rumi and the Great Persian Mystical Poets
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an introduction to the Classical Persian mystical poets through translations. We will focus on Rumi as well as on Rabe'e, Mahsati, Sana'i, Attar, and Hafez. We will place each of them in the context of their own time and place, and through close readings and explication of selected texts will learn to appreciate their poetic art and imagery. At the same time students will be introduced to major tenets of Sufism as reflected in the visions of these Persian poets, and their role in society to this day.

NEAREAST 429. Topics in Modern Arabic Literature in Translation
(3). May be elected three times for credit.

Topics for this course will vary. The class is conducted in English with all readings in English.

NEAREAST 430. History of Arabic Literature in English
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the literary history of Arabic, from the earliest to modern times. Works in English translation will exemplify this literature which is drawn from poetry and prose. Lectures and class discussion will relate these writings to the societies, historical circumstances, and cultural values to which they give expression.

NEAREAST 433 / WOMENSTD 496. Gender and Representation in the Modern Middle East
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An examination of the construction of gender as pertains to the contemporary Middle East (predominately but not exclusively the Arab Middle East) as found in a wide array of literary and cultural representations (fiction, travel accounts, photographs, painting, film) produced both in the Middle East and outside of it.

NEAREAST 487 / HISTORY 443. Modern Middle East History
(4). May not be repeated for credit.

Impact of the West on the Islamic Near East in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Emphasis is on the modernization of the Ottoman Empire and Republican Turkey and Egypt, the rise of the Arab and Zionist nationalisms and the subsequent Arab-Israeli dispute, and inter-Arab and international rivalries to the present.

NEAREAST 490. Topics in Near Eastern Studies
(3). May be elected twice for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in the field of Near Eastern Studies. The course will be taught by a temporary faculty member or as a testing course for permanent faculty. Topics will vary, focusing on such areas as film, literature, history, popular culture, religion, etc.

NEAREAST 492. Mini-course in Near Eastern Studies
At least one prior course in Near Eastern studies and/or related to the topic of the course. (1 - 3). May be elected twice for credit.

Special topics in Near Eastern studies offered in a mini-course format. Topics will vary but typically center around such disciplines as literature, linguistics, history, religion, visual culture, or cultural studies.

NEAREAST 499. Independent Study in Near Eastern Studies
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected four times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

An independent study course in the area of Near Eastern Studies. The intended language of instruction is English. Approval from the department is required.

NEAREAST 517. Classical Persian Texts
PERSIAN 202. (3). May be elected four times for credit.

A survey of classical Persian prose and poetry. A variety of authors and textual histories are explored.

NEAREAST 518. Persianate History Through Political and Cultural Texts
PERSIAN 202 or advanced reading knowledge of Persian. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits.

Persian history is explored through literature, looking at poetry and prose that spans several centuries and political movements.

NEAREAST 519. Qur'anic Studies
ARABIC 402. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Combines Western approaches to the Qur'an with selected readings from Muslim writing on Qur'an exegesis, history of the Revelation, inimitability of the Qur'an, the abrogating and abrogated verses, the so-called "mysterious letters," mystical interpretations of the Qur'an, as well as other topics pertaining to Qur'an studies. Close reading and translation of selected Arabic works by al-Tabari, alTabrisi, al-Wahidi, al-Nahhas, al-Suyuti, al-Hallaj, Ibn 'Arabi, al-Quashani (al-Kashani) and other Muslim authors.

NEAREAST 520. Readings in Classical Islamic Texts
ARABIC 402. (3). May be elected four times for credit.

Selected theological, philosophical, historical, and geographical texts.

NEAREAST 535. Selected Topics in Ancient Egyptian History and Culture
NEAREAST 243 or NEAREAST 338. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This course is an in-depth seminar on the pivotal Middle Kingdom (ca. 2040-1650 BCE) in ancient Egypt which investigates the period from a diachronic and critical historical perspective through a combination of textual and archaeological date. We will also contextualize the complex political, social and religious trends of the Middle Kingdom Egypt within the larger and interrelated systems of cultures in Africa, The Aegean and southwest Asia.

NEAREAST 538. Seminar in Egyptian Archaeology
Graduate standing or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NEAREAST 542. Reading the Rabbis
Second year proficiency in Hebrew (HJCS 202). (4). May not be repeated for credit.

The class will study rabbinic sugyot in the original language and discuss modern scholarship and theory in rabbinic literature.

NEAREAST 555. Modern Jewish Literature
HEBREW 302 or advanced proficiency in Hebrew. (3). May be elected twice for credit.

This course explores works written by Jewish writers on Jewish themes. Most works will be from 20th or 21st century authors.

NEAREAST 590. Topics in Near Eastern Studies
Upper-level undergraduates or graduate students with previous coursework in Near Eastern studies. (3). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course is for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in the field of Near Eastern Studies taught by a temporary faculty or as a testing course for permanent faculty. Topics will vary.

NEAREAST 591. Seminar in Near Eastern Studies: Religion
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This seminar is designed to discuss theories, methods, histories, or current trends in the field of religious studies as they pertain to Near Eastern studies. Topics will vary.

NEAREAST 592. Seminar in Near Eastern Studies: Literature
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar is designed to discuss theories, methods, histories, or current trends in the field of literary studies as they pertain to Near Eastern studies. Topics will vary.

NEAREAST 593. Seminar in Near Eastern Studies: Linguistics
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This seminar is designed to discuss theories, methods, histories, or current trends in the field of linguistics as they pertain to Near Eastern studies. Topics will vary.

NEAREAST 594. Seminar in Near Eastern Studies: Theory and Methodology
NEAREAST 698. (3). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This seminar is designed to address theories and methodologies relevant to the field of Near Eastern Studies. The intended audience is more advanced graduate students with some prior foundation in historical methods and theories. Topics will vary.

NEAREAST 595. Seminar in Near Eastern Studies: History and Culture
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This seminar is designed to address theories, methodologies, or societal trends in the field of history or cultural studies as they pertain to Near Eastern studies. Topics will vary.

NEAREAST 600 / HISTORY 827. Seminar in Problems and Methods of Research on Medieval Near East
AAPTIS 461/HISTORY 442 and Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NEAREAST 615 / HISTORY 663. Persian Historiography from Medieval to Early Modern Times
AAPTIS 461 or 464, Reading knowledge of Persian is helpful. Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NEAREAST 616 / HISTORY 665. Medieval Arabic Historiography
AAPTIS 461; Graduate standing. Reading knowledge of Arabic is not required, though helpful. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NEAREAST 683 / POLSCI 653. Proseminar in Middle East Politics
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NEAREAST 698. Historical Research Methods
(3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

This class is designed to engage in graduate students in the field of Near Eastern Studies with a variety of approaches to study the past. It will provide a forum to collectively discuss modes of historical questioning as well as responsible conduct of research and scholarship.

NEAREAST 699. Directed Graduate Readings
Consent of department required. Graduate standing. (1 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 15 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

NEAREAST 990. Dissertation Research and Writing Precandidate
Consent of department required. Election for dissertation work by doctoral candidate not yet admitted as a Candidate. Graduate standing. (1 - 9). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 27 credits. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

NEAREAST 995. Dissertation Research and Writing Candidate
Candidate only. Consent of department required. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (8; 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

Near East Studies Languages (NESLANG)
NESLANG 415. Elementary Hittite
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the earliest-attested Indo-European language. Presentation of the fundamentals of Hittite grammar and orientation to the cuneiform writing system. Consideration of the position of Hittite among the languages of Europe and the Near East.

NESLANG 420. Introduction to Akkadian
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to Akkadian, an east Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia.

NESLANG 425. Aramaic I
NESLANG 102 (ACABS 102). (3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to Biblical Aramaic.

NESLANG 426. Aramaic II
NESLANG 425. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NESLANG 430. Introduction to Middle Egyptian I
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the grammar and literature of ancient Egypt, and to the hieroglyphic script.

NESLANG 431. Introduction to Middle Egyptian II
NESLANG 430. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NESLANG 435. Introduction to Sumerian
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course is an introduction to Sumerian, a language of ancient Sumer, which was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).

NESLANG 440. Coptic I
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to Coptic, a northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until at least the 17th century.

NESLANG 441. Coptic II
NESLANG 440 or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NESLANG 445. Ugaritic I
NESLANG 102 (ACABS 102). (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Ugaritic is a Northwest Semitic language and is known almost only in the form of writings found in the ruined city of Ugarit in Syria. This language is ideal for students studying Hebrew Bible to clarify Biblical Hebrew texts.

NESLANG 446. Ugaritic II
NESLANG 445 or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NESLANG 450. Introductory Central Asian Language I
(4 - 5). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write at a basic level in the Central Asian language of their choice. Repeatable for different languages.

NESLANG 451. Introductory Central Asian Language II
NESLANG 450 (or AAPTIS 119 or ASIANLAN 119), with a minimum grade of C- or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4 - 5). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write at a basic level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

NESLANG 480. Intermediate Central Asian Language I
NESLANG 450 (or AAPTIS 120 or ASIANLAN 120), with a minimum grade of C- or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3 - 5). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Students may not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write at an intermediate level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

NESLANG 481. Intermediate Central Asian Language II
NESLANG 480 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (Lang Req). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Students may not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write at an intermediate level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

NESLANG 499. Independent Study in Near Eastern Language
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

An independent study course taught in one of the languages under the NESLANG subject code of the Department of Near Eastern Studies. Approval from the department is required.

NESLANG 501. Elementary Classical Hebrew I
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the language and style of the Hebrew Bible and other ancient texts written in Hebrew. Regular instruction on grammar and vocabulary with drills.

NESLANG 502. Elementary Classical Hebrew II
NESLANG 501. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Lessons and exercises on the language of the Hebrew Bible and other ancient texts written in Hebrew. Presentation of grammar and vocabulary.

NESLANG 513. Readings in Akkadian
NESLANG 420. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Readings in Akkadian meant for advanced students in the language.

NESLANG 530. Advanced Middle Egyptian
NESLANG 431. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will continue the study of Middle Egyptian beyond the first year by exposing students to a variety of texts in this language. Students will read a selection of biographical, literary, religious, magical, medical and documentary texts, in modern transcriptions and in facsimiles of the ancient originals.

NESLANG 550. Advanced Central Asian Language I
NESLANG 120 (or AAPTIS 120 or ASIANLAN 120), completed with a minimum grade of C- or better. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3 - 4). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write to an advanced level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

NESLANG 551. Advanced Central Asian Language II
NESLANG 550 (or AAPTIS 359 or ASIANLAN 359). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3 - 4). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. May not repeat the same language at the same level.

This course develops students' ability to speak, listen, read, and write to an advanced level in the Central Asian language of their choice.

NESLANG 601. Intermediate Classical Hebrew I
NESLANG 502. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

NESLANG 602. Intermediate Classical Hebrew II
NESLANG 601. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Persian (PERSIAN)
PERSIAN 499. Independent Study in Persian
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

An independent study course in the area of Persian language. The intended language of instruction is Persian. Approval from the department is required.

PERSIAN 504. Modern Persian Fiction
PERSIAN 202 (AAPTIS 242). (3). May not be repeated for credit.

An exploration of modern Persian fiction. This course introduces students to great works and notable authors. All texts are in Persian.

PERSIAN 505. Modern Persian Nonfiction
PERSIAN 202 (AAPTIS 242). Taught in Persian. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

An exploration of modern Persian non-fiction. This course introduces students to great works and notable authors. All texts are in Persian.

Turkish Studies (TURKISH)
TURKISH 402. Advanced Turkish II
TURKISH 401 (AAPTIS 351). (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The third part of the departmental sequence in Modern Turkish. It aims to improving students' proficiency in all four skills, reading, writing, listening, and speaking, based on original Turkish texts from a variety of sources, in combination with selected exercises on grammar and style. Materials will be distributed in class.

TURKISH 499. Independent Study in Turkish
Consent of department required. (1 - 4). (INDEPENDENT). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

An independent study course in the area of Turkish language. The intended language of instruction is Turkish. Approval from the department is required.

TURKISH 504. Modern Turkish Readings
TURKISH 202 (AAPTIS 252) or TURKISH 203 (AAPTIS 255). (3). May be elected three times for credit.

Intensive linguistic practice in modern Turkish with thorough literary, historical, and philological analysis.

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