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Courses in LSA Philosophy
Philosophy (PHIL)
PHIL 405. Philosophy of Plato
One philosophy course (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

A systematic study of Plato's philosophy.

PHIL 408 / ECON 408. Philosophy and Economics
ECON 401 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course explores several conceptually challenging philosophical issues in and about economics including questions about the scientific status of economics, puzzles arising within economic theory (especially concerning the notion of rationality), and matters concerning the relation between economic theories and fundamentals normative questions of economic policy.

PHIL 409. Philosophy of Language
PHIL 296, 303, or 414. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

A consideration of basic concepts used by philosophers and linguists in analyzing language, and of fundamental problems concerning language and its place in human activity. Among the topics to be considered in one or another year will be some of the following: meaning, reference, synonymy, analyticity, speech sets, ambiguity, metaphor, truth and logical truth, and the relation of language, thought, and culture.

PHIL 413. Formal Philosophical Methods
Satisfaction of QR/1 with either 2nd semester calculus, an advanced course in logic, a course in statistics above STATS 265, or a course in economics. (3; 2 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course surveys the formal tools used in contemporary philosophy. It covers elements of propositional and quantified modal logic, formal semantics, counterfactuals, probability theory, and decision theory. Each class begins with an introduction to formal material and ends with a contemporary philosophical paper that presupposes that material.

PHIL 414. Mathematical Logic
One PHIL or MATH course. (3; 2 in the half-term). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit. F.

This course is an advanced introduction to symbolic logic, intended to provide a foundation for understanding current research in philosophical logic and related areas of cognitive science.

PHIL 416. Modal Logic
PHIL 414 or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 420. Philosophy of Science
One course in Philosophy or Science at the 300 level or higher with a grade of C- or better; or graduate standing. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

The nature of science, scientific explanation, scientific laws and theories, theoretical concepts, and reductionism - all with special reference to the natural sciences.

PHIL 422. Philosophy of Physics
PHIL 180, 181, 196, 201, 202, 232, 234, 296, or 297 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better); or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3; 2 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

A philosophical examination of the foundation problems of some areas of physical theory such as the concepts of statistical mechanics, the nature of basic laws of dynamics or the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics.

PHIL 423. Problems of Space and Time
One logic introduction and either one other philosophy course or 12 credits of science. (3; 2 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 424. Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics
One course is Philosophy and one in Mathematics or Physics. (3; 2 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the philosophy for quantum mechanics, focusing on quantum non-locality and the measurement problem ("Schrodinger cat paradox"). While some background in physics would be useful for this course, it is not essential. Relevant formalisms are introduced along with the philosophical questions they help to frame.

PHIL 425. Philosophy of Biology
One course in Philosophy or Biology. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 429. Ethical Analysis
PHIL 361 or 366, (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better); OR Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

This course discusses questions about the nature, object, forms, basis, and justifications of morality and about the relation of morality to the good life.

PHIL 430. Topics in Ethics
PHIL 361 or 366, (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better); or Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3; 2 in the half-term). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits.

PHIL 441. Social Philosophy
PHIL 361 OR 366 (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better), OR Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

This course analyzes the fundamental problems of social philosophy, with special attention to the way in which theory may function as a guide to specific policies.

PHIL 442. Topics in Political Philosophy
PHIL 361, 366 or 367, (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better); OR Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

Taking one of the following ideas as a central theme, this course examines fundamental philosophic issues related to human rights, liberty, democracy, justice, or alienation.

PHIL 443. Foundations of Rational Choice Theory
Two courses in Philosophy, Economics, or Psychology (or some combination thereof) and satisfaction of the Quantitative Reasoning requirement; or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 450. Philosophy of Cognition
Two courses in Philosophy. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 460. Medieval Philosophy
One philosophy introduction. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

A survey of medieval philosophers in the Western tradition, covering figures such as Augustine, Boethius, Anselm, Maimonides, Averroes, Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus and William Ockham. The readings may be oriented around a theme, such as the problem of evil, free will, divine foreknowledge, proofs for God's existence, and universals.

PHIL 463. Topics in the History of Philosophy
One Philosophy course (completed with a minimum grade of C- or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) PHIL 388 or 389, or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

An intensive critical study of selected texts and issues from the history of Western philosophy, dealing with material that is not usually covered in the department's regular basic offerings in the history of philosophy.

PHIL 466. Topics in Continental Philosophy
One of PHIL 371, 375, 385, or 389 or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 467. The Enlightenment and Skepticism
One Philosophy course or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

An introduction to the philosophy of the Enlightenment, considering its views on reason, skepticism, the critique of religion, theories of human nature, science, and politics. Attention will also be paid to counter-Enlightenment thinkers. Readings will focus on original works but also include contemporary commentaries.

PHIL 477. Theory of Knowledge
PHIL 345 or 383. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

A philosophical examination of problems concerning the nature and possibility of human knowledge. Topics may include the definition of knowledge, skepticism, sense-perception and the external world, memory and knowledge of the past, knowledge of necessary truth, conditions of justified belief, and the objectivity of knowledge.

PHIL 480. Philosophy of Religion
One introduction to Philosophy. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 481. Metaphysics
PHIL 345 or 383. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

An examination of some of the central problems in metaphysics such as appearance and reality, time, universals and particulars, causality and freedom, and the nature of metaphysical systems.

PHIL 482. Philosophy of Mind
PHIL 345 or 383. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

Analysis of mental concepts such as consciousness, perception, thinking, etc. Consideration of philosophical problems concerning the mind such as personal identity, the relation of mind and body, our knowledge of other minds. Attention will be given to the bearing of psychology on these topics.

PHIL 486 / WOMENSTD 486. Topics in Feminist Philosophy
Two courses in either Philosophy or Women's Studies or permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 487. Wittgenstein
One philosophy introduction and another course in Philosophy or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 501. Plato
PHIL 405, 406 or permission of instructor. Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 511 / SOC 508. Philosophy of Social Science
Graduate standing. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines the logic of social science research through the writings of philosophers and social scientists. Central topics include the logic of comparative social science, the role of rational choice theory, the cultural turn, the utility of causal mechanisms, and hidden assumptions in quantitative reasoning.

PHIL 530. Topics in Epistemology
PHIL,Graduate standing in Philosophy or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 550. Topics in Philosophy of Language
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 560. Topics in Philosophy of Science
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 562. Topics in Philosophy of Physics
PHIL 101 or 233 or equivalent and at least one other course in Philosophy or 12 hrs of physical science or permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 576. Topics in Social-Political Philosophy
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 578. Topics in Philosophy of Law
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 590. Graduate Intensive Study
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 3). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. May be elected more than once in the same term.

A discussion section exclusively for graduate students, which an instructor may be supplement a 400-level course in a given term. It allows for even more intensive investigation of topics, through additional readings, assignments and discussion, at a graduate level.

PHIL 596. Reading Course
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (2 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 597. Proseminar
Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 598. Independent Literature Survey
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 599. Doss Reading Course
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (2 - 3). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

A faculty-directed candidacy reading course in which a student works toward identifying a specific thesis topic and writing a dissertation prospectus, and begins to write material which can be expected to represent some component of the dissertation.

PHIL 600. Advanced Studies
Consent of instructor required. Graduate standing and permission of instructor. (3; 2 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 601. Seminar in Theory of Knowledge
Graduate standing. (3 - 4). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 602. Seminar in Philosophy of Science
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May be repeated for credit.

PHIL 605. Seminar in Logic
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 607. Seminar in Metaphysics
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 610. Seminar in History of Philosophy
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 611. Seminar in Current Philosophy
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 615. Seminar in Philosophy of Language
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May be repeated for credit.

PHIL 616. Seminar in Philosophy of Mathematics
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 640. Seminar in Ethics
Graduate standing. (3; 2 in the half-term). May not be repeated for credit.

PHIL 990. Dissertation/Precandidate
Election for dissertation work by doctoral student not yet admitted as a Candidate. Graduate standing. (1 - 8; 1 - 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

PHIL 993. Graduate Student Instructor Training Program
Must have Teaching Assistant award. Graduate standing. (1). May not be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

PHIL 995. Dissertation/Candidate
Graduate School authorization for admission as a doctoral Candidate. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (8; 4 in the half-term). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for credit. This course has a grading basis of "S" or "U".

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