Graduate Course Catalog
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Note: For descriptions of classes each term, see the LSA Course Guide
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Courses in LSA Environment
Program in the Environment (ENVIRON)
ENVIRON 402. Nature and History in the Huron River Watershed
(3). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

A watershed is a location in the environment and a turning point in history. In this course, we will explore the nature and history of the Huron River watershed to explore how place has shaped people, and vice versa. We will consider how watershed knowledge may contribute to sustainable management.

ENVIRON 403 / EARTH 408. Introduction to GIS in the Earth Sciences
An introductory geology or environmental sciences course (EARTH 116, 119, 120, 201, or 284) and MATH 116. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Although previous GIS experience is not required, students are expected to be familiar with desktop and mobile computing, and to be comfortable with at least one quantitative software program (Matlab, Excel, Mathematica, or R, as examples). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an understanding of Geographic Information Systems and their application in the earth sciences. Through lectures and lab exercises students are exposed to GIS theory, applications and software.

ENVIRON 409 / EEB 487 / NRE 409. Ecology of Fishes
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W. (Lectures: 3 credits; lectures and lab: 4 credits).

Covers physiological, behavioral, and numerical responses of fishes to biotic and abiotic factors; the relationship between fish and the physical, chemical, and biological parameters of major habitat types; adaptations of fish for survival under different constraints.

ENVIRON 415 / EEB 424 / NRE 415. Behavioral Ecology and Conservation Biology
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and completion or concurrent enrollment in either ENVIRON 415 or EEB 424 or NRE 415. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EEB 492.

This course will focus on the ways environments shape the behavior and life histories of animals. Because environments pose constraints, behaviors have "better" and "worse" impacts on an organism's survival and reproduction. This course will consider hypothesis in five areas.

ENVIRON 421. Restoration Ecology
BIOLOGY/ENVIRON 281 and EEB/ENVIRON 372 OR EEB/ENVIRON 381. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course offers an introduction to the science, policy, and social issues around ecological restoration and explores where local agriculture fits in the larger context of restoration. We examine and discuss a multitude of restoration projects - urban, rural, and natural areas - through the use of case studies, field trips, and guest lectures from local practitioners of restoration ecology. Field trips to local restoration sites will include field exercises to learn how to collect data for site inventory, monitoring, and assessing restoration success.

ENVIRON 422 / EEB 440 / NRE 422. Biology of Fishes
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Lectures cover many aspects of the biology of lower vertebrates known as fishes, including evolution, physiology, functional morphology, phylogeny, biogeography, ecology, and reproduction. The systematic position of fish among vertebrates is discussed and exemplary assemblages exam.

ENVIRON 423 / EEB 441 / NRE 423. The Biology of Fishes Laboratory
BIOLOGY 162 or 171, 172 and 173. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This lab provides an intro to field methods used in fish biology and fisheries, and examines the diversity of the Michigan ichthyofauna and major groups of would fishes.

ENVIRON 426 / AOSS 421 / EARTH 421. Introduction of Physical Oceanography
MATH 115 and 116, and an introductory science course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines the fundamentals of physical oceanography; the physical properties of the ocean and water masses; circulation of the atmosphere; wind-driven and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation; tides; surface and internal waves; eddies; and mixing.

ENVIRON 430 / EEB 489 / NRE 430. Soil Ecology
BIOLOGY 162 or 171 and 172 and 173, and General Chemistry. Concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON 436/EEB 436 and ENVIRON 435/NRE 435 highly recommended. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Soils as central components of terrestrial ecosystems. Major emphasis is placed on physical, chemical, and biological properties and their relationships to plant growth and ecosystem processes. Understanding is developed using a combination of lectures, field- and lab-based exercises, and individual research.

ENVIRON 431 / EARTH 431. Terrestrial Biomes Past, Present and Future
BIOLOGY 171, or one of EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119, 120, or 205/206; or Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

As the major organizing feature of terrestrial ecosystems, biomes are dependent on the organisms, ecosystems, and climate of the planet. This course surveys important biological innovations, examples of past ecosystems from the fossil record, the relevance of climate to terrestrial environments, and the changing world of today and tomorrow.

ENVIRON 433 / EEB 433 / NRE 433. Ornithology
BIOLOGY 171 and (172 or 174) and 173, or BIOLOGY 195 and 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

During the lecture, students have the opportunity to learn about many unique features of birds. In the mandatory lab, students have the opportunity to learn about birds by using museum specimens, and by observing birds on field trips.

ENVIRON 436 / EEB 436 / NRE 436. Woody Plants: Biology and Identification
BIOLOGY 162 or 171. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Ecology, systematic and identification of trees, shrubs, and vines are studies in weekly field trips to diverse Michigan ecosystems--including upland, wetland, and floodplain forests. Lectures focus on glacial landscape history, biogeography, and ecology of Michigan forests.

ENVIRON 442 / EARTH 442. Earth Surface Processes and Soils
MATH 115 and CHEM 130. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Study of processes resulting in landforms on the Earth's solid surface and the formation of soils on these landforms. Emphasis includes present-day processes as well as the evolution of landforms over geologic time. Several required field trips will examine landforms and processes in southern Michigan.

ENVIRON 446 / EARTH 446. Paleoclimatology
MATH 115 and 116 and EARTH 305, or permission of instructor. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines climate change throughout Earth's history. Topics include the following: description of Earth's climate history, physics of the Earth's climate, methods of reconstructing past climate and climate forcings, and biological causes and consequences of climate change.

ENVIRON 449 / NRE 449. Organizational Theory and Change: Issues in Implementing Environmental Programs and Policies
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores how different types of organizations and organizational arrangements can influence organizational decision-making, behavior, and outcomes in complex political arenas, such as endangered species recovery, protected area management, risk assessment, community forestry, and community-based resource management and development.

ENVIRON 451 / EEB 451 / NRE 451. Biology of Mammals
BIOLOGY 171, (172 or 174) & 173; or BIOLOGY 195 & 173. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Evolution, distribution, ecology, behavior, anatomy, and classification of mammals, with emphasis on North American species.

ENVIRON 456 / EEB 456. Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands
BIOLOGY 171 or one introductory biology course and another natural science course. (5 in the half-term). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course aims for students to acquire an understanding of the basic concepts of ecosystem structure and function of the diverse herbaceous and forested wetlands along the Great Lakes coasts.

ENVIRON 467 / AOSS 467 / CHEM 467 / EARTH 465 / ENSCEN 467. Biogeochemical Cycles
MATH 116, CHEM 210, and PHYSICS 240 (or 260). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F, W.

ENVIRON 475 / EHS 588 / NRE 475. Environmental Law
(3). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduces students to environmental law and the impact of the legal process on decisions that affect the environment. Topics include common law tort actions, toxic tort actions, statutory controls of pollution and other environmentally harmful activities. Additional areas include administrative agency structure and performance, constitutional rights to environmental quality and more.

ENVIRON 476 / EEB 476 / NRE 476. Ecosystem Ecology
General Ecology and a 400-level course in Aquatic or Terrestrial Ecology. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

Current theories about the control and function of ecosystems, the approaches and techniques being used to test these theories, and the application of theory to the management and restoration of ecosystems.

ENVIRON 479 / EARTH 477. Hydrogeology
MATH 116; and High school knowledge of PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, and EARTH (GEOSCI) or equivalent. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to physical hydrogeology with particular emphasis on processes and direct applications to geological settings and problem solving. The hydrologic cycle, physical rock framework, and properties of aquifer systems are described and quantified. Groundwater flow and mass transport equations are covered, as well as pump test design and analysis. Natural tracers and groundwater dating are discussed.

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