The LSA Undergraduate Course Catalog is a searchable listing of active courses, regardless of whether a class is currently offered. The LSA Course Guide is a searchable listing of classes offered for a particular term. For information on course listing terminology, see Key to Course Listing Notations.
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Courses in LSA Earth & Environmental Sciences

EARTH 100-115 are short (half-term) courses. They consist of detailed examinations of restricted geologic topics. The department lists the specific courses from this series in the Schedule of Classes for the terms they are offered (fall and winter terms only). Each course, when offered, meets twice weekly for half of the term (first half or second half), and the specific dates for each course are printed in the Schedule of Classes. These courses are designed primarily for students with no prior geologic training and they are open to all interested persons. EARTH 100-115 are offered on the graded pattern (optional pass/fail).

Earth and Environmental Sciences (EARTH)

EARTH 100. Coral Reefs
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 156 or GEOSCI 156.

EARTH 102. Energy from the Earth
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 158.

The nature, mode of occurrence, and the technology of exploration and exploitation of energy resources, and their relevance to the present and future world energy needs. Special attention is given to oil, gas, oil shale, tar sands, coal, uranium, and geothermal resources.

EARTH 103. Dinosaurs and Other Failures
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who completed or are enrolled in EARTH 150.

Some of the outstanding "failures" in evolutionary history also involve the most interesting success stories. This course looks at the fossil record and the ecological causes of diversification and extinction of the ruling reptiles.

EARTH 104. Ice Ages, Past and Future
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 151 or GEOSCI 151.

EARTH 105. Our Active Earth: Plate Tectonics and Geohazards
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 205 or 146 or GEOSCI 205 or 146.

This mini-course provides an overview of the geological history and geological process that shape our planet. We cover the scientific discoveries (Earth's age, continental drift, seafloor spreading) that form the basis of our understanding of Earth's planetary-scale dynamics, plate tectonics, and its natural hazards.

EARTH 106. Earth Science in Feature Films Minicourse
No prior scientific knowledge is required. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 141.

This minicourse focuses on some major concepts in Earth Science in a lecture setting while also exploring how these same processes are portrayed in feature films, both animated and not. Topics include ocean circulation, ice ages, Earth's structure, plate tectonics, coral reefs, life in the ocean, and climate change.

EARTH 107. Volcanoes and Earthquakes
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 205 or 146 or 147; or GEOSCI 205 or 146 or 147.

EARTH 108. When Earth Attacks: The Science Behind Natural Disasters
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 147 or GEOSCI 147.

This minicourse explores the science behind natural disasters, concentrating on our ability, or inability, to predict them. Lectures address how natural disasters can lead to changes in both science and public policy.

EARTH 109. Water and Society
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 206 or EARTH 206 or ENVIRON 206.

This course will present an overview of problems encountered through the unwise use of water resources and the resultant impact on society through the analysis of case studies. An introduction to the hydrological cycle and principles of surface and groundwater hydrology will be provided.

EARTH 110. Evolving Oceans
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 222 or EARTH 222.

This course explores the impacts of climate change on the world's oceans and the history of past oceanic life, events, and environments as recorded in seafloor sediments. Lectures address the nature and rate of past and modern (anthropogenic) perturbations to the physical, chemical, and biological state of the oceans.

EARTH 111. Formation of a Habitable Planet
No prior scientific knowledge is required. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This minicourse tells the story of Earth from the Big Bang to humankind, focusing on key chemical reactions that make our home planet a habitable world. Topics: Earth's formation, composition, and structure, plate tectonics, mantle convection, geomagnetic field, global water cycle, volcanoes, carbon sequestration, origin of life, and mass extinction.

EARTH 112. The Great Lakes
No prior scientific knowledge is required. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 417.

This minicourse focuses on environmental issues in the Great Lakes. Topics include the formation and geology of the Great Lakes, hydrology and dynamics of water levels, effect of invasive species on food webs and fisheries, and pollution, particularly the role of nutrients in causing toxic algal blooms.

EARTH 113. Planets and Moons
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 153 or 204, or EARTH 153 or 204, or AOSS 204 or ASTRO 204.

EARTH 114. Global Warming
High School math, physics, and chemistry. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 151 or EARTH 151.

Review of the geological evidence for global warming including geochemistry of natural and anthropogenic greenhouse gases, global radiation balance, sediment and ice core records, and ancient hot climates with discussion of possible remediation methods and their economic and political context.

EARTH 115. The Emerald Planet
(1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This minicourse explores the major events in the co-evolution of plants and the Earth. Topics include: how plants moved onto land, the rise of the first forests, the invention of flowers and their impact on animals, and how plants bring about and respond to environmental change.

EARTH 116 / ENVIRON 116. Introductory Geology in the Field
(5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Reduced credit: Students who have completed GEOSCI 117 or EARTH 117 or ENVIRON 117 receive 2 credits; GEOSCI 119 or 120 or EARTH 119 or 120 or ENVIRON 119 or 120, 3 credits; GEOSCI 205 AND 206 or EARTH 205 AND 206 or ENVIRON 206, 3 credits; one of GEOSCI 205 or 206 or EARTH 205 or 206 or ENVIRON 206, 4 credits. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail.

An introduction to geology in the field, this course is the equivalent of EARTH/ENVIRON 118/119 but is taught at Camp Davis, the University's Rocky Mountain Field Station near Jackson, Wyoming. It stresses principles and processes involved in the evolution of the earth. The course includes rigorous laboratory exercises in which students study minerals, rocks and fossils, and structures in their natural settings. Lectures are given both in camp and in the field, but much time is spent outdoors in the nearby Teton, Hoback, Gros Ventre, and Snake River Ranges. Other trips of special significance include the Wind River Range. Craters of the Moon, and Yellowstone Park.

EARTH 118 / ENVIRON 118. Introductory Geology Laboratory
Prior or concurrent enrollment in EARTH 119, or 205 and 206, or 284. (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit if completed an introductory course in geology (EARTH/ENVIRON 116, 117, or 120). F, W.

This one-term laboratory course provides a practical study of minerals, rocks, and fossils and geologic maps.

EARTH 119 / ENVIRON 119. Introduction to Earth Science
Concurrent enrollment in ENVIRON or EARTH (GEOSCI) 118 for the lab. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 116, 117, or 120. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH/ENVIRON 116, 117, or 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both EARTH/ENVIRON 205 and EARTH/ENVIRON 206. Two credits granted to those who have completed one of EARTH/ENVIRON 205 or EARTH/ENVIRON 206. F, W.

A basic single-term course in introductory geology concentrating on the evolution of the Earth in physical and chemical terms. Reference to the interaction of the external biosphere/atmosphere/hydrosphere with the earth's interior is an essential component of the course.

EARTH 120 / ENVIRON 120. Geology of National Parks and Monuments
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit if completed EARTH (GEOSCI)/ENVIRON 116, 117, or 119, or both EARTH (GEOSCI) 205 AND EARTH (GEOSCI)/ENVIRON 206. Only 3 credits with EARTH (GEOSCI) 205 or EARTH (GEOSCI)/ENVIRON 206. W.

This is an introductory course that uses the National Parks to explore the geological history of the Earth, and specifically the tectonic evolution of the North American continent. Topics include plate tectonics, global volcanism, large explosive volcanic eruptions, the age of the Earth, the history of life (fossil record), meteorite impacts, earthquakes, mountain building, the origin of the Great Lakes, and climate change throughout Earth history.

EARTH 122 / CLIMATE 102 / ENVIRON 102. Extreme Weather
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an introduction to the physics of extreme weather events. The course uses examples of the thunderstorms, jet stream, floods, lake-effect snowstorms, lightning, thunder, hail, hurricanes, and tornados to illustrate the physical laws governing the atmosphere. Participants apply these principles in hands-on storm forecasting and weather analysis assignments.

EARTH 125. Evolution and Extinction
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Those with credit for GEOSCI 106 or EARTH 106 may only elect EARTH 125 for 2 credits. May not be included in a concentration plan in Geological Sciences.

EARTH 130 / CHEM 108 / PHYSICS 119. The Physical World
High-school algebra. (4). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

The physics, chemistry, and pre-calculus (algebraic) concepts of comprehensive Earth and planetary science are covered for those students who feel less than fully prepared for existing college-level science classes. The course is aimed at students in need of a science course, particularly those who will not readily select more than one physical science course as undergraduates at UM. Weekly discussions by a GSI will complement and amplify the lectures.

EARTH 131 / ENVIRON 131. Earth and Environmental Chemistry
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in CHEM 130 (Gen Chem).

This course is an introduction to the fundamental principles in chemistry for beginning students in Earth and Environmental Sciences and related programs, including Program in the Environment. Principles of general chemistry, with content tailored to, and examples drawn from, the Earth and Environmental Sciences.

EARTH 140. Climate and the Media
High school science highly recommended. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Few subjects garner as much media attention and controversy as stories about global warming. This seminar will introduce students to the basic concepts and observations that form the basis of our understanding of climate change and explore how these concepts are reflected and occasionally distorted by the media.

EARTH 141. Earth Science in Feature Films First Year Seminar
No prior scientific knowledge is required. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This first year seminar focuses on some major concepts in Earth Science in a lecture setting while also exploring how these same processes are portrayed in feature films, both animated and not. Topics include ocean circulation, ice ages, Earth's structure, plate tectonics, coral reefs, life in the ocean, and climate change.

EARTH 142. From Stars to Stones
High school math and science. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Those with credit for GEOSCI 114 or EARTH 114 may only elect EARTH 142 for 2 credits.

EARTH 146. Plate Tectonics
Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed three of GEOSCI 105, 107, and 205 or EARTH 105, 107, and 205 (or any combination thereof). Those with credit for one of GEOSCI 105 and 107 or EARTH 105 and 107 (or any combination thereof) may only elect EARTH 146 for two credits. Those with credit for GEOSCI 205 or EARTH 205, or both GEOSCI 105 and 107 or EARTH 105 and 107 (or any combination thereof), may only elect EARTH 146 for one credit.

EARTH 147. Natural Hazards
Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH/ENVIRON 230. Students who have credit for GEOSCI 107 or 108 or EARTH 107 or 108 will only receive 2 credits for EARTH 147. Those who have credit for both GEOSCI 107 and 108 or EARTH 107 and 108 (or any combination thereof) may elect EARTH 147 for only 1 credit.

This seminar explores natural geological hazards such as floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, landslides, and meteorite impacts. It also examines catastrophic results of climate change, with an emphasis influenced by current events. Students are expected to be active participants in reading, discussions, oral presentations, and written reports.

EARTH 148. Seminar: Environmental Geology
High school math and science. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 284 or EARTH 284 or are enrolled in EARTH 284. Those with credit for GEOSCI 109 or EARTH 109 may only elect EARTH 148 for 2 credits.

EARTH 149. Fossils, Darwin, and Evolution
First Year Seminar. Only first year students may register including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Science is an iterative process of questioning, observing, and integration. Charles Darwin's career illustrates this, building on fossils to initiate a synthetic explanation for life's evolution and diversification. Here we learn about fossils, their distribution through geological strata, and their importance for understanding the earth today and in the future.

EARTH 151. The Ice Ages: Past and Present
Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Those with credit for GEOSCI 104 or EARTH 104 may only elect EARTH 151 for 2 credits.

This course explores the characteristic of the Earth's climate system and how the various components of that system operate to produce times when extensive ice sheets cover large parts of the Earth's surface. The role of each of the major components of the climate system is discussed in detail. Reconstructions of past climatic conditions are presented and discussed. The long term climate change associated with the most recent ice age is then contrasted with more rapid climate oscillations.

EARTH 153. Earthlike Planets
High school science and math recommended. Only first-year students (including first-year students with sophomore standing) may pre-register for this course. All other students need permission of instructor. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Those with credit for GEOSCI 113 or EARTH 113 may only elect EARTH 153 for 2 credits.

EARTH 154. Ocean Resources
High school science and math recommended. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 156. Coral Reef Dynamics
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

The biology and ecology of modern reefs are studied, together with the evolution of the reef community and its composition over geologic time. The course investigates the interaction between the organisms living in association with coral reefs. It also explores the ways in which our species affect the reefs and both directly and indirectly through climate change.

EARTH 159. Toward a Sustainable Human Future
High school science and math recommended. Enrollment restricted to first-year students, including those with sophomore standing. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Today's human society is faced with a need for adjustments to our changing environment. This first-year seminar uses a systems-based approach to examine the natural science that is needed for short- and long-term decision making in support of a sustainable human future.

EARTH 160. The Science Behind Environmental Issues
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Environmental issues are discussed and debated in the popular media on a daily basis, but the scientific foundations for environmental decision making are often obscured in political rhetoric. This first-year seminar will explore the science behind current environmental issues at a level accessible to first-year students without a prior background in environmental science.

EARTH 171 / BIOLOGY 110 / CLIMATE 171 / ENVIRON 110 / RCNSCI 110. Introduction to Global Change: The Science Behind Sustainability
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies the geography requirement for State of Michigan certification for social studies teachers. F.

Students learn about the evolution of the universe, Earth, our changing environment and our planets living organisms. Global Change I, which is part of the GC curriculum, assumes no prior science background. Homework and laboratories use computer-based systems modeling and analysis, and includes a group presentation.

EARTH 172 / CLIMATE 172 / ENVIRON 111 / GEOG 111. Climate Change and Sustainability: Environmental Challenges of the 21st Century
(4). (ID). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies the geography requirement for State of Michigan certification for social studies teachers. W.

This course explores impacts of modern human society on land, ocean, and atmosphere, considering all aspects relevant to a sustainable future. Throughout the semester, students work on a sustainability pledge to apply class material to everyday life.

EARTH 178 / CHEM 110 / ENVIRON 109. Science and Sustainable Development
(3). (NS). May not be repeated for credit.

One of the biggest challenges facing our society today is that growth and prosperity come with a huge environmental cost. Is there an alternative way to thrive? The United Nations thinks so, and in 2015, they created "a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future." The result led to 17 sustainable development goals "which are an urgent call for action by all countries - developed and developing - in a global partnership." This course will explore 7 of these goals through the lens of a scientist. We will explore the science behind what we know and how we know it. Then we will explore how cutting-edge science being done today might offer solutions for the future.

EARTH 201 / GEOG 201. Introduction Physical Geography
(4; 3 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 144 or 202 or EARTH 144 or 202 (or any combination thereof). F.

This introduction to physical geography emphasizes the nature and dynamics of the Earth system including the atmosphere, hydrosphere and solid Earth, along with their interactions. Topics include weather systems, climate change, biogeography, soils, plate tectonics, erosion, fresh water resources, landforms, and ice ages, all of which are discussed in the context of Earth Systems Science.

EARTH 202 / ENVIRON 202. Introduction to Earth and Environmental Sciences in the Rockies
(5). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 201. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 201 or ENVIRON 209 or GEOG 201. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail.

This course examines the principles of Earth and Environmental Sciences through field-based studies at the UM Camp Davis Rocky Mountain Field Station in Wyoming.

EARTH 205. How the Earth Works: The Dynamic Planet
(2). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 116, 117, 119, 120, or 146 and no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 116, 117, 119, 120, or 146 or ENVIRON 116, 117, 119 or 120. No credit granted to those who have completed both GEOSCI 105 and 107 or EARTH 105 and 107 (or any combination thereof). Those with credit for one of GEOSCI 105 and 107 or EARTH 105 and 107 (or any combination thereof) may only elect EARTH 205 for 1 credit.

EARTH 206 / ENVIRON 206. How the Earth Works: The Water Cycle and Environment
(2). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 277. Those with credit for GEOSCI 109 or EARTH 109 may only elect EARTH 206 or ENVIRON 206 for 1 credit.

Earth surface processes as they affect water and the global biogeochemical environment. Quantifies rates of water and elemental exchange between major Earth surface reservoirs. Surface rock weathering and geochemical exchange described.

EARTH 218 / ENVIRON 228. Introduction to Environmental Science Laboratory
Prior or concurrent enrollment in EARTH 219 or ENVIRON 229. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (1). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted for those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 201/GEOG 201/ENVIRON 209, EARTH/ENVIRON 202, or EARTH/ENVIRON 284.

Lab sections will provide opportunities to dig deeper into specific topics of environmental science. The labs will focus on two types course material of importance in environmental science. The first type of material is related to the highly controversial nature of many topics that are covered in lectures. Many students are passionate about many topics from population control to environmental standards to renewable energy to GMOs. Whereas some students are satisfied learning about controversial topics in lecture, others crave the opportunity to research and debate these topics in a small group setting. The second type of material utilized in the labs relate to quantitative data sets, calculations and models. Some students are skeptical about conclusions reported by the media related to environmental issues and want to work with "real" datasets themselves. These quantitative labs require extensive interaction with fellow students and GSIs. Data from the peer-reviewed literature and government agency websites must be located and evaluated. Simple programming software can also be used to develop simple models of environmental systems.

EARTH 219 / ENVIRON 229. Introduction to Environmental Science
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted for those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH/ENVIRON 202, EARTH/ENVIRON 284.

This course emphasizes the scientific processes and principles behind global environmental issues. Topics include global change, human population, ecosystems, biogeography, biodiversity, soil-water-air pollution, environmental health, energy systems and their environmental consequences, and environmental policy.

EARTH 222 / ENVIRON 232. Introductory Oceanography
(3). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in AOSS 203.

The oceans of earth, their circulation, biology, chemistry, geology of the sea floor, and marine resources. Emphasis is on understanding the oceans as a single ecosystem.

EARTH 223 / ENVIRON 233. Introductory Oceanography, Laboratory
(1). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

One three-hour lab each week.

EARTH 230 / ENVIRON 230. Natural and Environmental Hazards: Uncertainties, Risks, and Forecasts
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Society faces considerable risk of future natural and environmental disasters. There is uncertainty in assessments of risks to, or forecasts of, future disasters. This class will focus on the science of natural and environmental hazards, including the scientific process, causes of these hazards, and forecasting of future risk.

EARTH 238 / ALA 238 / ENVIRON 238 / HISTORY 238 / MIDEAST 278. Zoom: A History of Everything
(4; 3 - 4 in the half-term). (ID). May not be repeated for credit.

This interdisciplinary course in "Big History" integrates the human story with its terrestrial and cosmic surroundings. It uses the notion of "powers of ten" to shift perspectives in space and time. It proceeds logarithmically, "nesting" each topic (and disciplinary perspective) within its predecessor, from astrophysics to history and back again.

EARTH 240. Primitive Navigation and Wayfinding in the Natural World
(4). (NS). (BS). (QR/1). May not be repeated for credit.

This course combines descriptions of historical navigation techniques (e.g. magnetic compass, sundial, star-based navigation) with scientific understanding of the natural phenomena founding these practices (e.g. movement of the sun, stars, and moon, ocean currents, atmospheric circulation and weather patterns).

EARTH 255 / ASTRO 255. Introduction to Astronomy, Geology, and Climate Science
High school mathematics and physics recommended. (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in ASTRO 101 or 115, or EARTH 171(or GEOSCI 171) or AOSS 171 or BIOLOGY 110 or ENSCEN 171 or ENVIRON 110.

This course covers introductory Astronomy, Geology, and Climate Science. It covers the discovery of the place of the Earth in the universe and its origin; discusses plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes; and addresses the major components of the climate system (atmosphere, oceans, and cryosphere).

EARTH 259 / ENVIRON 259. Earth's Future and a Resilient Human Society
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 111 or 159.

Human society needs to prepare for and adapt to a changing environment, growing demands for resources and the impacts of natural processes. Planning this future must reconcile social, economic and cultural expectations, by deploying technological and social solutions as adaptation and mitigation strategies for human communities on regional and global scales.

EARTH 262 / ENVIRON 262. Plants and People
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course examines the relationship between plants, people, and the environment; focusing on economically important plants. Plants are important for survival, aesthetic, and environmental purposes and have had significant impacts on human history, society, and environment. Today plants are critical for our future. Topics include foods, fibers, drugs, and ornamentals.

EARTH 277. Water in the 21st Century
(3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH / ENVIRON 206.

Water sustainability is the number one challenge of the 21st century. Freshwater scarcity is likely to worsen as global climate change intensifies and population growth continues. This class provides students with a solid understanding of the global water cycle and brings students' awareness to the most current challenging water issues.

EARTH 284 / ENVIRON 284. Environmental Geology
(4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 148, and no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 148. Those with credit for GEOSCI 147 or EARTH 147 may elect EARTH 284 or ENVIRON 284 for only 3 credits.

Deals with interactions between people and Earth. It begins with an introduction to geologic materials and processes and goes on to specific topics such as soil, surface and groundwater, natural hazards (volcanism, landslides, earthquakes, floods, coastal processes), geomedicine, and waste disposal.

EARTH 295. Navigating an Earth and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Career
Consent of department required. Major in Earth and Environmental Sciences or Minor in Earth Sciences, Environmental Geology, Geology, Oceanography, or Paleontology. (1). May not be repeated for credit.

This course gives new majors and minors in the Earth and Environmental Sciences department an introduction to the unit, skills, and resources to prepare students for a successful undergraduate career.

EARTH 296. Topics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences
(1 - 5). (NS). (BS). May be elected twice for credit.

A course on topics in Earth and environmental sciences. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 299. Independent Study and Research
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 12 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration.

Undergraduate research in Earth and Environmental Sciences for students with less than junior standing.

EARTH 305. Earth's Surface and Sediments
An introductory geological sciences laboratory course. (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Properties of sediments and their origin, transportation, desposition, lithification, and diagenesis followed by ecology and environmental analysis, paleoecology, facies analysis, and an introduction to stratigraphic methods and principles.

EARTH 309 / ENVIRON 309. GIS Explorations of the Past, Present, and Future
General computer experience is required, including word processing, spreadsheets, and presentations. (3). (ID). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in ENVIRON 339: GIS Explorations: Past, Present and Future at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS).

This course uses geographic information systems (GIS) to help understand and analyze environmental problems as well as spatial questions in the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities. A hands-on approach is used to demonstrate GIS principles using a wide variety of examples. .

EARTH 310 / ENVIRON 310. Toxicology: The Study of Environmental Chemicals and Disease
BIOLOGY 171 or BIOLOGY 195 (AP). (3). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Explores the relationship between environmental chemical exposures and adverse health consequences, examining factors that determine and influence toxicity and exploring the role of chemical exposure in the etiology of specific diseases.

EARTH 313 / EEB 313. Geobiology
One of the following: EARTH 119, BIOLOGY 171, EARTH 131, or CHEM 130. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course addresses several core geobiological themes in two very different worlds, the microbial world and the vertebrate world. Themes include the coevolution of the biosphere and geosphere, major evolutionary innovations and events, diversity of life and metabolism, biomechanics, and biogeography.

EARTH 314. Geophysics
MATH 115 or equivalent. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Introductory algebra-based physics. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. May not be taken pass/fail.

This course covers the use of geophysical observations and techniques for investigations of Earth's internal structure, plate tectonics and earthquake faulting. Topics include: Earth?s gravity field, isostasy, and the modeling of gravity anomalies; Plate kinematics, plate forces and Earth dynamics; Seismology, wave propagation and Earth's layered structure; Earthquake faulting and rupture processes; Heat flow in Earth.

EARTH 315. Earth Materials
One of the following: EARTH 131, CHEM 130, CHEM 210, or CHEM 230. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

General survey of properties of inorganic solids including elementary crystallography and crystal chemistry, with emphasis on application to mineralogical and geological problems. Laboratory study of mineral properties and an introduction to optical properties of the more important minerals. Field trip required.

EARTH 320 / CLIMATE 320 / SPACE 320. Earth Systems Evolution
MATH 115, MATH 116; (C or better). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the physics and chemistry of Earth and space. Gravitational energy, radiative energy, Earth's energy budget, and Earth tectonics are discussed along with chemical evolution and biogeochemical cycles. The connections among the carbon cycle, silicate weathering, and the natural greenhouse effect are discussed.

EARTH 321 / CLIMATE 321 / SPACE 321. Earth Systems Dynamics
CLIMATE/SPACE 320; Preceded or accompanied by MATH 215 and MATH 216. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course will describe the major wind systems and ocean currents that are important to climate studies. The primary equations will be developed and simple solutions derived that will explain many of these motions. The relations among the dynamics and other parameters in the climate system will be illustrated by examples from both paleo and present day systems.

EARTH 323 / CLIMATE 323 / SPACE 323. Earth System Analysis
(4). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the analysis of Earth and Atmospheric Science Systems. Topics include linear systems, harmonic analysis, sampling theory and statistical error analysis. Lectures emphasize underlying mathematical concepts. Labs emphasize application of mathematical methods to analysis of field data in a computer programming environment. Applications include turbulent air motion in the planetary boundary layer, cloud and precipitation microphysical composition, oceanic wave propagation, stratospheric ozone depletion and satellite remote sensing.

EARTH 325 / ENVIRON 325. Environmental Geochemistry
EARTH/ENVIRON 131 or CHEM 130. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with the geochemistry of our environment. It focuses on the geochemistry of the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere and the ways in which they affect the biosphere. Applications of these principles to present-day problems in environmental geochemistry are discussed.

EARTH 331 / ENVIRON 332. Climate and Climate Change
A working knowledge of high school algebra and physical sciences. (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Those with credit for GEOSCI 111 or 144 or EARTH 111 or 144 may only elect EARTH 331 for 3 credits.

This course examines the physical and chemical processes influencing Earth's climate and the methods of quantifying past and present climate change. Emphasis is placed on understanding the mechanisms of climate change from ice ages through the near future. The evidence of human-caused changes in climate is also discussed. Students with interests in global change and the environment are encouraged to enroll. A background in college science is not required.

EARTH 333 / ENVIRON 333. The Inexhaustible Seas? Marine Resources and Environmental Issues
EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119, 125, 120, 222, or 284. (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed GEOSCI 154, and no credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 154.

This course explores the mineral, energy and food resources of the ocean and environmental impacts that arise from the exploitation of these resources. We discuss conflicts in our competing uses of the ocean and its resources. We also examine both the popular and scientific literature surrounding these issues.

EARTH 344 / ENVIRON 344. Sustainable and Fossil Energy: Options and Consequences
Consent of department required. At least one previous course in physical sciences or engineering. (4 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail.

This course introduces concepts and environmental consequences of sustainable and fossil energy sources. Students conduct hands-on experiments using alternate energy systems at Camp Davis. In addition, the class travels throughout Wyoming and Idaho visiting and investigating facilities important for power generation.

EARTH 350 / CLIMATE 350 / SPACE 350. Atmospheric Thermodynamics
MATH 216 or 256 or 286 or 316; (C or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Fundamentals of thermodynamics are presented, including the First, Second and Third Laws, ideal gases, adiabatic processes, phase changes, vapor pressure, humidity, and atmospheric stability. The Kinetic Theory of Gasses provides a molecular perspective on the various forms of atmospheric water substance and on macroscopic phenomenology in general.

EARTH 351. Earth Structure
One introductory geological sciences laboratory course. (4). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 451 or GEOSCI 451. W.

Geological structures of the lithosphere and introduction to global tectonics. Three hours lecture, one laboratory weekly. Topics include: folding, faulting, stress, strain, rheology, deformation mechanisms, whole-earth structure, plate tectonics.

EARTH 352. Magmatism, Metamorphism, and Plate Tectonics
Introductory Earth Science [EARTH 119&118 or 116 or 120,or ENVIRON 119&118 or 116] AND [EARTH/ENVIRON 131 or CHEM 130]. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) EARTH (GEOSCI) 315. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in EARTH 412.

The role of metamorphism and magmatism, within the context of plate tectonics, in driving evolution of Earth's mantle and crust. Formation of oceanic and continental crust; hot-spot volcanism; continental collision; changes in tectonics, magmatism, and metamorphism through time and their relationship to the evolution of life, the atmosphere, and climate.

EARTH 370 / SPACE 370. Solar-Terrestrial Relations
MATH 216 and PHYSICS 240. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to solar terrestrial relations with an overview of solar radiation and its variability on all time-scales. The effects of this variability on the near-Earth space environment and upper atmosphere are considered, as well as effects on the lower and middle atmosphere with connections to weather and climate. Subjects are approached through extensive data analysis, including weekly computer lab sessions.

EARTH 380 / ENVIRON 380. Natural Resources, Economics, and the Environment
No previous courses in Geology or other sciences are required. (4; 3 - 4 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

This course deals with natural resource-related challenges in a complex society. The course discusses the origin, distribution, and remaining supplies of natural resources, including fertilizers, metals and fossil fuels, in terms of the economic, engineering, political, and environmental factors that govern their recovery, processing, and use. Topics covered in the course include nuclear waste disposal, strip mining, continent-scale water transfers, mineral profits and taxation, and estimation of remaining mineral reserves.

EARTH 381 / CLIMATE 380 / SPACE 380. Introduction to Atmospheric Radiation
MATH 216 or 256 or 286 or 316; (C or better). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Basic concepts and processes of radiative transfer including radiometric quantities, electromagnetic spectrum, absorption, emission, scattering. The physics laws governing these processes including the Planck Law and the Kirchhoff Law. Radiative properties of atmospheric constituents. Reflection and refraction. Introductory-level descriptions of relevant applications in atmospheric sciences and climate physics.

EARTH 396. Topics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences
(1 - 5). (NS). (BS). May be elected twice for credit.

A course on topics in Earth and environmental sciences. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 401 / CLIMATE 401. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
CLIMATE 323, SPACE 323, or EARTH 323 (or GEOSCI 323); MATH 215 and 216 and PHYSICS 240. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Dynamics of the oceans and atmosphere. Equations of motion in spherical coordinates, beta-plane approximation, wave properties in the oceans and atmosphere.

EARTH 408 / ENVIRON 403. Introduction to GIS in the Earth Sciences
An introductory geology or environmental sciences course (EARTH 116, 119, 120, 201, 202, 219 or 284) and one math course or a statistics course (MATH 115, 116, 120, 121, 156, 175, 176, 185, 186, 295, 296, STATS 150, 180, 250, 280). (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Although previous GIS experience is not required, students are expected to be familiar with desktop and mobile computing, and to be comfortable with at least one quantitative software program (Matlab, Excel, Mathematica, or R, as examples). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an understanding of Geographic Information Systems and their application in the earth sciences. Through lectures and lab exercises students are exposed to GIS theory, applications and software.

EARTH 409 / CLIMATE 410. Earth System Modeling
CLIMATE 320, CLIMATE 321, SPACE 320, SPACE 321. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to Earth System Modeling; Discussion of energy balance models, carbon cycle models, and atmospheric chemistry models with multiple time scales; Methods for numerical solution and practice building and analyzing results from models.

EARTH 411 / CLIMATE 411. Cloud and Precipitation Processes
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, MATH 216. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

The special nature of water substance; nucleation of phase changes in the free atmosphere; the structure and content of coulds; the development of physical characteristics of precipitation; and the dynamics of rain systems.

EARTH 413. Geomicrobiology: How Microorganisms Shape Earth and Environment
[EARTH/ENVIRON 131 or CHEM 130] AND [EARTH 313 and EARTH 325] or graduate standing or permission of instructor. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines how and why microorganisms (primarily bacteria and archaea) drive geochemical processes. Emphasis is placed on the integration of cellular physiology/metabolism with cycling and transformation of elements. Topics include biomineralization, mineral dissolution and weathering, and critical evaluation of molecular biogeochemical approaches.

EARTH 414 / CLIMATE 414. Weather Systems
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, CLIMATE 401 or CLIMATE 551. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to the basic characteristics, thermodynamics, and dynamics of atmospheric weather systems on Earth and other planets. The students are exposed to observations of weather systems while reviewing non-dimensional analysis, dynamics and thermodynamics. Weather systems on earth are compared to that of other planets and analytical tools are used to gain insights into their basic physics.

EARTH 417. Geology of the Great Lakes
An introductory course in Geology (EARTH 116, 119, 120 or 205/206/118), BIOLOGY 171 or 172, or Oceanography (EARTH 222/223), OR permission of instructor. (2). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Geologic history of the late-glacial and post-glacial Great Lakes of North America, with emphasis on evaluation of evidence. Related topics such as lake circulation, bedrock setting, and physical environment of sedimentation, and paleoclimate records are examined.

EARTH 418. Paleontology
An introductory course in Geology (EARTH 116, 119, 120 or 205/206/118) or BIOLOGY 171 or 172. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Introduction to the principles, methods of analysis and major controversies within paleontology; familiarization with the fossil record and its use in problems involving evolutionary biology, paleoecology, and general earth history.

EARTH 419. Paleontology Laboratory
Prior or concurrent enrollment in EARTH (GEOSCI) 418. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

This laboratory course involves observation, analysis and interpretation of fossil material. Its goal is to give students experience dealing with paleontological problems and to develop a familiarity with the morphology, systematics, ecology, and evolutionary history of important groups of fossil organisms.

EARTH 421 / CLIMATE 421 / ENVIRON 426. Introduction of Physical Oceanography
MATH 115 and 116, and an introductory science course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines the fundamentals of physical oceanography; the physical properties of the ocean and water masses; circulation of the atmosphere; wind-driven and buoyancy-driven ocean circulation; tides; surface and internal waves; eddies; and mixing.

EARTH 422. Principles of Geochemistry
[EARTH 305, 315, 412] and [EARTH 131 or CHEM 125/126/130]. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

This course explores how geochemical methods can unravel and provide insight into the origin and chemical evolution of the earth and its parts (core, mantle, crustal rocks). Topics covered include: stable isotope and trace element analysis; radioactive age dating; hydrothermal solutions, and metamorphic and igneous systems.

EARTH 423 / CLIMATE 422. Boundary Layer Meteorology
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350 or equivalent. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

This course explores processes in the atmospheric boundary layer, which plays an important role in the exchange of energy, mass and momentum between land and atmosphere. Topics include applications of governing atmospheric equations, atmospheric turbulence, turbulent kinetic energy, the surface energy balance, and the collection and analysis of field flux tower data.

EARTH 429. Computational Mineralogy
(4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course will introduce molecular simulation techniques to simulate the atomic and electronic structure of bulk minerals and mineral surfaces. Fundamental properties such as structure, thermodynamics, electronic and magnetic behavior, reactivity and dynamic processes will be studied. These are important in environmental mineralogy, petrology, and in environmental and technical applications.

EARTH 431 / ENVIRON 431. Terrestrial Biomes Past, Present and Future
BIOLOGY 171, or one of EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119, 120, or 205/206; or Graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

As the major organizing feature of terrestrial ecosystems, biomes are dependent on the organisms, ecosystems, and climate of the planet. This course surveys important biological innovations, examples of past ecosystems from the fossil record, the relevance of climate to terrestrial environments, and the changing world of today and tomorrow.

EARTH 432. Plant Paleobiology
BIOLOGY 171 or GEOSCI 116, or 119, or 120, or 205/206, or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Plants have played important roles in the terrestrial biosphere for over 500 million years. This course explores the evolution and ecology of plants through this time, including the transition to land, early plant life, origin of major groups and plant structures, and the impact plants have on shaping our planet.

EARTH 433. Field Studies in Economic Geology
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

EARTH 435. Field Studies in Mineralogy, Petrology, and Geochemistry
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

EARTH 436. Field Studies in Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Sedimentology
Permission of instructor. (1 - 4). (BS). May be repeated for credit.

EARTH 437. Evolution of Vertebrates
EARTH (GEOSCI) 125 or BIOLOGY 162 or 171 or 172. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Lectures and laboratory exercises on the anatomy, ecology, and phylogeny of fishes, amphibians, and reptiles in the fossil record, with emphasis on adaptation and evolution.

EARTH 440. Geological Field Methods
EARTH 305 and 351. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (5). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Satisfies the Earth and Environmental Sciences concentration Field Experience requirement. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail. Rackham credit requires additional work.

In this broad, in-depth field course, students are trained to recognize distinct lithological units and their 3-D relationships. Mapping projects include deformed and faulted sedimentary, regional metamorphic, and igneous complexes. Digital mapping techniques and modern geophysical tools supplement traditional field observations.

EARTH 441. Field Geology Project
Consent of department required. Completion of EARTH (GEOSCI) 440 immediately prior. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Su at Camp Davis, Wyoming. May not be taken pass/fail. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course builds on skills developed in GEOSCI 440 including geologic mapping in complexly deformed terranes, integration and interpretation of regional geologic relationships, and topics in applied field geophysics. It must be taken immediately following GEOSCI 440 in the same summer at Camp Davis, Jackson, Wyoming.

EARTH 442 / ENVIRON 442. Earth Surface Processes and Soils
MATH 115 and (EARTH 131 or CHEM 130). (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

Study of processes resulting in landforms on the Earth's solid surface and the formation of soils on these landforms. Emphasis includes present-day processes as well as the evolution of landforms over geologic time. Several required field trips will examine landforms and processes in southern Michigan.

EARTH 444. Analytical Paleobiology
Completion of an introductory paleontology course such as EARTH 418, or evolutionary biology such as EEB 390. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course emphasizes theory, quantitative methods, and hypothesis testing as applied to paleobiological questions. Topics include phylogenetic inference, morphometrics, evolutionary rates, biomechanics, and functional morphology. Laboratories provide exposure to introductory programming and relevant software. The course is offered at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students.

EARTH 446 / ENVIRON 446. Paleoclimatology
MATH 115 and 116 and EARTH 305, or permission of instructor. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course examines climate change throughout Earth's history. Topics include the following: description of Earth's climate history, physics of the Earth's climate, methods of reconstructing past climate and climate forcings, and biological causes and consequences of climate change.

EARTH 449. Marine Geology
EARTH (GEOSCI) 222/223 or introductory physical geology (EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 117, 120 or 205/206/118). (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 450 / ENVIRON 450. Ecosystem Science in the Rockies
Introductory Geology [EARTH 119&118 or 116 or 120; or ENVIRON 119&118 or 116] AND BOTH EARTH/EEB 313 AND EARTH/ENVIRON 325. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (5 in the half-term). (NS). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

This is a 4-week course taught at Camp Davis, WY using the Rocky Mountains as a field laboratory to gain field-based knowledge and experience while developing an understanding of geological and meteorological processes and the distribution and function of grasslands, forests, and alpine ecosystems of the region. This course is designed for majors in geological and environmental sciences, natural resources and other students who have a general interest in this subject matter.

EARTH 451. Introduction to Structure and Tectonics
Permission of Instructor. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. No credit granted to those who have completed or are enrolled in GEOSCI 351.

Interpretation of geological structures in the Earth's crust, and introduction to global plate tectonics. This course is aimed at all who have an interest in the Earth's physical properties beyond the introductory level, which may include graduate students.

EARTH 454 / CLIMATE 440. Meteorological Analysis Laboratory
CLIMATE 350, SPACE 350, CLIMATE 401. (4). May not be repeated for credit.

This course provides an introduction into the analysis of both surface-based and remotely-sensed meteorological data. The development and application of operational numerical forecast models will be discussed. Techniques for the prediction of both synoptic and mesoscale meteorological phenomena will also be presented.

EARTH 455. Determinative Methods in Mineralogical and Inorganic Materials
One term of Chemistry and Physics. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. W.

EARTH 457 / CLIMATE 451 / ENSCEN 451. Atmospheric Dynamics I
CLIMATE 401 or MATH 450. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Quasi-geotropic energetics; fronts; the mean circulation; planetary and equatorial waves; overview of the dynamics of the middle atmosphere; wave-mean flow interaction; spectral methods; and tropical meteorology.

EARTH 460 / ENVIRON 460. Paleobiology and Paleoenvironments
At least two courses from following list: EARTH 305, EARTH 313, EARTH 418. (5). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course will help students to understand Earth's biological and environmental evolution over geologic time. Through field-based case studies, students will learn an array of observational and analytical skills drawing from, but not limited to, sedimentology, stratigraphy, paleobotany, paleozoology, paleoclimate, paleoecology.

EARTH 465 / CHEM 467 / CLIMATE 467 / ENSCEN 467 / ENVIRON 467. Biogeochemical Cycles
MATH 116, CHEM 210, and PHYSICS 240 (or 260). (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F, W.

The biogeochemical cycles of water, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur; the atmosphere and oceans as reservoirs and reaction media; the fate of natural and man-made sources of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds; the interactions among the major biogeochemical cycles and resultant global change; greenhouse gases, acid rain and ozone depletion.

EARTH 467. Stratigraphy and Basin Analysis
EARTH 305 and an introductory geoscience course [one of: EARTH 116 or ENVIRON 116; or EARTH 119 and 118, or ENVIRON 119 and 118; or EARTH 120 or ENVIRON 120 or EARTH 201 or GEOG 201 or ENVIRON 209; or EARTH 205 and 206 (or ENVIRON 206) and 207]; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) EARTH 310, and 351. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. F.

This course focuses on continental and marine depositional environments and on sedimentary basin filling processes, including an overview of differences between various tectonic settings. Case studies will be drawn from literature examples and from real data.

EARTH 468. Data Analysis, Inference, and Estimation
MATH 115 or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) Knowledge of, or willingness to learn, a programming language (e.g., Matlab, Mathematica). (3). (BS). (QR/2). May not be repeated for credit.

This course introduces students to methods for the statistical description of data and their uncertainties, and the inference and estimation of indirect information. Emphasis is placed on conceptual understanding and practical application. Topics include error propagation, cluster analysis, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, least squares regression, robust regression, and model selection.

EARTH 474 / CLIMATE 474. Ice Sheets, Glaciers and Climate Change
MATH 115 and 116. (3). May not be repeated for credit.

They dynamics and mass balance of ice sheets and glaciers introduced along with mathematical theories describing how ice sheets and glaciers flow and current methods of observation.

EARTH 475 / CLIMATE 475 / ENSCEN 475. Earth System Interactions
Senior standing in science or engineering. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Students will work on open-ended research problems with mathematical models from Earth System Science. The models may include, for example, surface characteristics, hydrology, solar-land-ocean-atmosphere exchanges, and space-based observations. Numerical experiments will promote further understanding and interpretation of earth system interactions, team building, and scientific communication.

EARTH 477 / ENVIRON 479. Hydrogeology
MATH 116; and High school knowledge of PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, and EARTH (GEOSCI) or equivalent. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Introduction to physical hydrogeology with particular emphasis on processes and direct applications to geological settings and problem solving. The hydrologic cycle, physical rock framework, and properties of aquifer systems are described and quantified. Groundwater flow and mass transport equations are covered, as well as pump test design and analysis. Natural tracers and groundwater dating are discussed.

EARTH 478. Geochemistry of Natural Waters
EARTH 131 or CHEM 130. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) EARTH 325. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Chemical compositions of natural waters, emphasizing both chemical and biogeochemical processes operating near Earth's surface; equilibrium vs. kinetic controls on chemical weathering; solute sources and mass balances in watersheds, groundwater, and river/ocean mixing zones. Hands-on field and lab experience provides training in methods of applied geochemistry.

EARTH 480. Isotopes in Earth and Environmental Sciences
EARTH 412, 415, 478, 479, 422, or another geochemistry course. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course covers theory, measurement and application of stable, radiogenic, and cosmogenic isotopes in the Earth and Environmental Sciences. It begins with background on the origin of isotopes, isotope fractionation, radioactive decay, and mass spectrometry. This is followed by applications to a wide range of research topics in isotope geochemistry.

EARTH 483. Geophysics: Seismology
Prior or concurrent election of MATH 215 and PHYSICS 240 (or 260). (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 484. Environmental Geophysics
Prior or concurrent election of MATH 115 and EARTH 314. Basic knowledge of function-oriented programing (i.e., Matlab or Python). This includes being able to open and read data files and know basic loop functions. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course is intended primarily for advanced undergraduate students and beginning graduate students in STEM disciplines. This multidisciplinary course covers a range of non-invasive, near-surface geophysical methods for environmental investigations, land management, and hazard assessment.

EARTH 485. Telling Time: Geochronology and the Story of Earth
An intro geology class (EARTH 116 or EARTH 119 or EARTH 120) and EARTH 315; or graduate standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Students synthesize geologic concepts to gain an applied understanding of geochronology. Each week, the class focuses on important events in Earth's history -from planetary accretion, to mass extinctions, to historical environmental changes- as vehicles to understand how geochronology is used to address geological problems.

EARTH 489. Geological Sciences Honors
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration.

Geological Sciences Honors research or thesis writing.

EARTH 490. Geological Sciences Honors
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (BS). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Continuing Course. Y grade can be reported at end of the first-term to indicate work in progress. At the end of the second term of EARTH 490, the final grade is posted for both term's elections. F, W, Sp. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration.

Geological Sciences Honors research for thesis writing.

EARTH 494. Experiential Learning in the Earth Sciences
Consent of instructor required. Junior or senior standing; and one of the following: EARTH (GEOSCI) 116, 119 and 118, 120, 201, 205/206/207, 222 and 223, 284 or ENVIRON 116, 119 and 118, 120, 209, 232 and 233, 284 or GEOG 201. (1 - 4). (BS). (EXPERIENTIAL). May be repeated for a maximum of 8 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration. Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Students work with a faculty advisor on an off-campus project or internship relevant to their field of study.

EARTH 495. Methods in Research for Natural Sciences
Consent of department required. (1). (BS). May not be repeated for credit. Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

This course covers the approaches to conducting research in the natural sciences, including the tools and methods of research; the processes for performing research; the mechanisms for communicating research results; and the responsible conduct of research. Meets the NSF/NIH requirements for the responsible conduct of research.

EARTH 496. Special Topics in the Earth and Environmental Sciences
(1 - 5). (BS). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Rackham credit requires additional work.

A seminar on topics in Geological Sciences. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 497. William T. Smith Lecture Seminar
Two required Geological Sciences concentration core courses. (1). May be elected twice for credit. Offered mandatory credit/no credit.

Focuses on current earth science research presented in the Dept Geological Sciences Department's W.T. Smith Lecture Series. Students attend a group seminar and the W.T. Smith Lecture each week and read a paper by the weeks' speaker. The seminar group also critically evaluates the substance and style of each presentation.

EARTH 498. Research or Special Work
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration.

Geological Sciences independent study, research, or special work.

EARTH 499. Research or Special Work
Consent of instructor required. (1 - 6). (INDEPENDENT). May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. A maximum of one credit of research or independent study (EARTH 299, 489, 490, 494, 498, 499) can be used for electives for the earth and environmental sciences concentration. F, W, Sp/Su, Sp, Su.

Geological Sciences independent study, research, or special work.

EARTH 515. Tectonics of Oceans and Continents
EARTH (GEOSCI) 351. (4). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

EARTH 531. Seminar in Geologic Problems
Permission of instructor. (1 - 3). (BS). May be elected three times for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term. Offered mandatory credit/no credit. Rackham credit requires additional work.

Earth and Environmental Sciences grad level seminar. Content varies by term and instructor.

EARTH 532. Seminar in Climate, Tectonics, and Surface Processes
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

This seminar discusses the coupling and interactions between climate, tectonics, and Earth surface processes. This interdisciplinary seminar integrates concepts and readings from the fields of paleoclimate, neotectonics, tectonic geomorphology, lithosperic geodynamics, and process geomorphology. Emphasis is placed on learning how to critically analyze various methods, data sets, and arguments presented in the literature. Participants are expected to read and actively discuss current scientific papers.

EARTH 534. Seminar in Geophysics, Tectonics, or Structure
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

EARTH 535. Seminar in Mineralogy, Petrology, or Geochemistry
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

EARTH 536. Seminar in Stratigraphy, Paleontology, or Sedimentology
Permission of instructor. (1 - 2). (BS). May be repeated for credit. May be elected more than once in the same term.

EARTH 581 / CEE 581. Aquatic Chemistry
(CHEM 130; C- or better, and Senior Standing) or Graduate Standing. (Prerequisites enforced at registration.) CHEM 130 and senior or graduate standing. (3). (BS). May not be repeated for credit.

Chemical principles applicable to the analysis of the chemical composition of natural waters and engineered water treatment systems; covers acid-base, precipitation-dissolution, complexation, and oxidation-reduction reactions; emphasis on graphical, analytical, and computer-speciation methods; presented in the context of contemporary environmental issues including water quality, climate change, and pollution prevention and abatement.