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DIPLOPTERYS Adr. Juss. in Deless., Icon. Sel. Pl. 3: 20, pl. 33. 1838 ["1837"].—Type: D. paralias Adr. Juss. [D. pauciflora (G. Mey.) Nied.].

Jubistylis Rusby, Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 7: 273. 1927.—Type: J. mollis Rusby [D. lutea (Griseb.) W. R. Anderson & C. Davis].

For citations of infrageneric synonyms see Anderson & Davis, 2006 [pdf].

Woody vines or shrubs, when shrubby the branches often twining; stipules interpetiolar, distinct, small to minute; leaves decussate; lamina with glands (often minute) on or just within margin (on the abaxial surface in one species); petiole eglandular or bearing 2 (rarely 4) glands on distal half. Inflorescence axillary or occasionally terminal, of 4- to 6-flowered umbels borne singly or in short racemes or cymes, or condensed axillary pseudoracemes of up to 8 pairs of flowers; bracts and bracteoles eglandular, persistent; pedicels sessile. Sepals mostly leaving petals exposed during enlargement of bud (valvate in D. valvata), all eglandular or the lateral 4 biglandular and the anterior eglandular, the glands when present mostly attached below free part of sepal; corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals yellow, glabrous or abaxially sparsely to densely sericeous or tomentose, the posterior petal different in size, shape, and stance from the lateral 4; receptacle glabrous on both sides of filaments; androecium bilaterally symmetrical; stamens 10, all fertile, the connective often swollen with projecting convex cells or papillae; gynoecium 3-carpellate, the carpels 1 anterior and 2 posterior, all fertile, distinct in the ovary; styles 3, distinct, mostly bearing long spreading hairs at least at base or up to 2/3 of their length, rarely glabrous; stigmas terminal and capitate or occasionally truncate. Fruit dry, breaking apart at maturity into 3 mericarps (or fewer by abortion) separating from a low pyramidal torus; nut of mericarp spherical and smooth-sided, rugose, ribbed, or bearing diverse winglets, and in most species bearing a well-developed dorsal wing thickened on the adaxial edge with the veins bending toward the thinner abaxial edge, usually bearing a triangular or rounded appendage on adaxial edge at base; dorsal wing reduced to a crest in 3 species; locule of mericarp glabrous within; carpophore present or absent. Chromosome numbers: n = 10 (in D. hypericifolia [Gates, 1982] and D. valvata [W. R. Anderson, 1993a]); photos.

Distribution: 31 species, 30 of them found in South America (including Trinidad) with two of those extending west into southern Central America; one additional species (D. mexicana) is known from a single collection in southeastern Mexico. Many of these species grow in wet forests but several are found in more open and drier habitats, including the cerrados of south-central Brazil. — Regional key to genera: Central America.Key to the genera Banisteriopsis, Bronwenia, and Diplopterys.

Diplopterys belongs to the large Stigmaphyllon clade. Most genera of this clade have fruits breaking up into samaras bearing a large dorsal wing thickened on the adaxial edge, although some species of the larger genera have this dorsal wing greatly reduced or lost. Diplopterys was erected to accommodate, D. paralias (=D. pauciflora), a species with a reduced dorsal wing, which otherwise resembles species of Banisteriopsis. The definition of Diplopterys became diffuse when Niedenzu (1928) added to it three genera with a reduced dorsal wing, which are now placed in the Christianella clade: Jubelina, Malpighiodes, and Mezia. Gates (1982) restricted Diplopterys to its type species and three additional species unknown to Niedenzu (D. cabrerana, D. cururuensis, D. mexicana). Of these, D. mexicana is known only from the type collection, which lacks fruits, but was included on the basis of bract and bracteole characters. She recognized the close similarity of Diplopterys and Banisteriopsis but maintained them as separate genera, based on the differences of the fruits. Diplopterys as defined by Anderson & Davis (2006) comprises the four species recognized by Gates (1982) in her monograph of Diplopterys plus the species of her Banisteriopsis subgenus Pleiopterys. Within the Stigmaphyllon clade (Davis & Anderson, 2010 [pdf]), Diplopterys is strongly supported (100% bootstrap), but it is placed as sister to Stigmaphyllon without support, and that pair is placed, also without support, as sister to a very strongly supported clade that contains all the rest of the Stigmaphyllon clade. Thus, Diplopterys has to be segregated from Banisteriopsis, but its placement between Bronwenia and Banisteriopsis remains to be determined.

References: Gates (1982), revisions of Banisteriopsis subg. Pleiopterys and Diplopterys sens. str.; Anderson & Davis (2006), description of genus, new combinations, synonymies, and two new species.

Etymology: The name Diplopterys comes from the Greek words for double (diploos) and wing (pteron), and refers to the fact that in the type species each mericarp bears on each side two similar and parallel lateral winglets.

Uses: Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatrec.) B. Gates, a riverine vine of western Amazonia, is used as an ingredient in the preparation of the hallucinogenic drink generally called yagé or ayahuasca; see the discussion in Gates, 1982, p. 214.

Photos: chromosomes; view all; D. hypericifolia, D. lucida, D. lutea, D. pubipetala

Drawings: view all; D. bahiana, D. cabrerana, D. carvalhoi, D. pauciflora, D. platyptera,
D. pubipetala, D. valvata

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