The Koelz Collection of Himalayan Art

Glossary

Abrash:
varying colors in a single warp, deliberately caused or inadvertently caused during dyeing.
Amlikar:
shawls with allover embroidery; in contrast to woven shawl (kamikar).
Band-woven:
narrow bands or fabric strips, woven separately and attached to shawl.
Beading:
as used in shawl weaving is a repetitively spotted line used as a minor accent for border edges.
Bel:
floral motif, blossoms and leaves on zigzag stem; common on hashias and tanjirs.
Boteh:
conventionalized teardrop-shape floral motif; paisley, pine cone, or mango shape (also buta, buthi).
Buta:
see boteh.
Buthi:
see boteh.
Buti:
small flower.
Caparison:
ornamental covering for a horse.
Cari:
mango shape, Hindi term for boteh motif.
Chandar:
moon, moon shawl.
Charkha:
wheel, Indian spinning wheel.
Dhor:
a figured motif that borders the field (also daur).
Dochalla:
long shawl.
Field:
main central panel of shawl; can be surrounded by gallery, hashias, tanjirs, pallas.
Fringe gate:
different colored blocks of woolen fabric, often embroidered with mihrabs, forming the fringe of a shawl.
Gallery:
wide border, surrounding main central portion (field) of shawl and separating it from the hashia borders.
Ga'u:
class of objects from reliquary boxes to amulets.
Hashia:
side panel of flat weave textile, typically woven separately and pieced.
Ikat:
resist dyeing process in which designs are dyed into warp or weft threads.
Jhal:
fine floral detail.
Kairi (Hindi):
mango shape, another name for the boteh motif (also kairy or cari).
Kamarband:
sash (cumberbund).
Kamikar:
shawls in which designs were fully woven in (contrast to allover embroidery, amlikar).
Karkhana:
workshop, under state supervision.
Khaddar:
coarse plain-woven cotton cloth, base for Phulkari embroidery.
Mihrab:
prayer niche of mosque; in shawls, the architectural element was echoed in fringe gates of the mid-nineteenth century.
Moon shawl:
square shawl containing a central medallion and quarter medallion in each corner.
Mughal:
South Asian empire, which ruled Kashmir from capitals in Delhi and Agra, A.D. 1483-1757.
Nal:
pairs of warp that occur in a 2/2 twill.
Naqqash:
shawl designer.
Nimsuzani:
Uzbek wall hanging.
Odhani:
veil.
Ombré:
French term meaning "shaded." It is used in relation to textiles as an adjective to describe fabrics with a dyed, printed, or woven design in which the color is graduated from light to dark and often into stripes of varying shades.
Palla:
end panel of flat weave textile.
Pashm:
unwoven Kashmir goat hair.
Pashmina:
woven Kashmir goat hair.
Patka:
sash; long and narrow shawl wrapped around the waist; could be used as a turban.
Phulkari:
exacting form of embroidery.
Rafugar:
male needleworker, shawl seamster.
Rangrez:
dyers of wool yarns.
Roundel:
a circular decorative ornament, from the old French rondel, meaning "small circle."
Rten:
amulets.
Rumal:
square shawl.
S-twist:
a yarn that has been spun to the left, or in a counterclockwise direction. The twisted fibers slope to the left, in the same direction as an "S."
Selvedge:
edge on either side of a woven fabric.
Shed:
space between raised and unraised warps, through which weft thread is passed; each shed comprises one row of weaving.
Soumak:
weaving technique, used for texture, consisting of weft-wrapped groups of loom warps.
Suzani:
embroidered textiles from Central Asia, used for home furnishings.
Talim:
written coded plan containing instructions for shawl weaving.
Talim guru:
code master in weaving shop.
Tangka:
portable religious painting on cloth.
Tanjir:
horizontal border, lying above and below the palla. Often identical to the hashia.
Tarah guru:
color caller in weaving shop.
Tiraz:
palace factory or workshop.
Toji:
bobbin, wooden sticks around which warp threads are wrapped.
Turanj:
mango shape, Kashmiri term for boteh.
Verge:
see gallery.
Volute:
spiral or scroll shaped form.
Warp:
the lengthwise threads which are stretched on a loom, forming the underlying structure or foundation of a cloth.
Weft:
thread which crosses the cloth at right angles to the warp, forming the pattern.
Yun-tsai-t'ou:
geometric motif found in textile borders of Central Asia and Kashmir, converging lines above a trefoil.
Z-twist:
a yarn that has been spun to the right, or in a clockwise direction. The twisted fibers slope to the right, in the same direction as a "Z."

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